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'THHIS. volume is so closely associated with No. IX. of this 
-* series that it hardly requires a separate Preface. The 
Introductory Notes which precede it belong quite as much to 
No. IX. as to No. X. ; and they have been made to accompany 
the English Translation, rather than the Syriac Text, with the 
view of equalizing the size of the two volumes. I shall therefore 
only recapitulate that these " Select Narratives " form the upper 
script of the Palimpsest which I discovered in the Convent of 
St Catharine on. Mount Sinai in A.D. 1892, and that the under 
script is the now famous Codex of the Old Syriac Gospels. 
Whether the tales are in any way worthy of their position, the 
reader must judge for himself. 

A. S. L. 





Eugenia i 35 

Mary = Marinus 3645 

Euphrosyne 4659 

Onesima 6069 

Drusis 7076 

Barbara 77~ 8 4 

Mary (slave of Tertullius) 8593 

Irene 94148 

Euphemia 149167 

Sophia 168-184 

Cyprian and Justa 185203 


COLOPHON 205,206 



Page 86, line 26. For " Diocletian " read " Hadrian." 
122, 10. For "Magdo" read "Magedo." 
140, footnote. For Swa^apicrn;^ read Svvagapicrnjs. 



The story of St Thecla is one of the oldest of Christian 
legendary romances, for it was composed in the beginning of 
the third century by an Asiatic presbyter, as Tertullian tells 
us 1 , " out of love to St Paul." The Ebionite heretics had sought 
to calumniate the character of the great Apostle, finding more 
than one supposed allusion to his fair disciple in the First Epistle 
to the Corinthians 2 , and the best antidote to these aspersions 
was a tale, wherein the acts of this first of women martyrs 
were placed in their true light 3 . 

St Jerome alludes to Thecla as to a real person. He says 
that after her temptation at Antioch she was prohibited by 
St Paul from accompanying him any further 4 . This, however, 
does not actually prove her existence, for he may have simply 
pointed a moral from the romance. 

The story tells us that when Paul was preaching in the city 
of Iconium, a man named Onesiphorus went out to meet him, 
accompanied by his wife 5 , by Zeno, and by the sons of Simon ; 
that he recognised Paul, who was waiting for him on the 
highway to Lystra, by his personal appearance, which had been 

1 De JBaptismo, cap. 17. 2 i Cor. vii. 3438; ix. 5. 

3 Baring Gould, Contemporary Review, Oct. 1877 (p. 862). 

4 Ad Oceanum de Vita clericorum. 

8 In the Syriac Palimpsest her name is given as *_L*rA. 


already described to him by Titus. Paul was a man of medium 
size, with scanty hair, bandy legs, large eyes, eyebrows which 
met, and a long nose ; he was full of grace and mercy, at one 
time seeming like a man, and at another like an angel. Demas 
and Hermogenes, coppersmiths, who accompanied Paul, were 
filled with envy at his friendly greeting to Onesiphorus; but 
Paul entered the house of the latter, brake bread, and preached 
about the controlling of the flesh, and about our Lord's resur- 

Whilst Paul preached a virgin named Thecla, daughter of 
Theocleia, betrothed to Thamyris, sat at a window which was 
close to the roof of Onesiphorus's house and listened to his 
words both by day and by night. She saw many women going 
in to hear him, but himself she saw not. Her mother, Theocleia, 
becoming alarmed, sent for Thamyris ; but to him she would 
'not even speak. He waxed wroth, and went down to the street, 
where he met with Demas and Hermogenes, who excited him 
still further against Paul. Next morning he went to the house 
of Onesiphorus, accompanied by the chief men of the city and 
many people with stones. They dragged Paul before Castelus 
the governor, the whole city accusing him of being a magician, 
and of corrupting their wives. The Governor questioned Paul, 
and sent him to prison. 

But Thecla in the night-time bribed the door-keeper of her 
mother's house with her own bracelets, and the gaoler with a 
mirror of gold, and having thus got access to Paul, she sat at his 
feet, listening to his teaching and kissing his fetters. Her family 
and her betrothed having found her there, they informed the 
Governor, who commanded that both Paul and Thecla should be 
brought before him. Thecla simply stood and looked at Paul, 
being quite silent when she was questioned. Then her mother 
cried out that she must be burnt, as an example to other women. 
The Governor commanded Paul to be scourged, and Thecla to 
be burnt in the theatre. When she had been brought out for 


that purpose she gazed intently on the crowd, in the hope of 
seeing Paul. And she saw the Lord Jesus, in the likeness of 
His apostle, sitting by her side. Whilst she gazed at Him He 
rose and ascended to heaven. The faggots were piled around 
her by youths and maidens, but she would not burn ; a shower 
of hail and rain extinguished the flames and killed many of the 

Paul in the meantime was fasting after his scourging, with 
Onesiphorus, his wife and his children, in a sepulchre by the 
roadside of the Iconians. Paul gave his tunic to a boy, direct- 
ing him to sell it and buy bread. The boy, meeting Thecla, 
brought her to Paul, who had been praying for her deliverance. 
She proposed to cut off her hair, and follow him everywhere. 
Then Paul sent away Onesiphorus and his family, and went 
with her and with other people to ^.ntioch. There they met 
an influential man named Alexander, who fell in love with 
Thecla, and offered to buy her from Paul. He replied that she 
did not belong to him. Alexander tried to embrace Thecla 
in the open street But she resisted him, tore off his garments, 
pulled a golden crown from his head and dashed it on the 
ground, leaving him standing naked. Alexander complained 
to the Governor, and Thecla was condemned to be thrown 
to the wild beasts. Thecla begged from the Governor that 
she should be kept in purity until the sentence was executed. 
Taking pity on her, he sent her to the house of a rich queen 
named Tryphaena, who had lately lost her daughter. 

Thecla was taken to the theatre, stripped, and exposed to a 
huge lioness. Tryphaena stood weeping at the door, but th$ 
lioness only licked the martyr's hand. Other beasts were let 
loose, but they would not touch her, and Tryphaena obeying 
the commands of her own daughter, whom she had seen 
in a night-vision, took her away, and adopted her. Thecla 
then prayed for the gift of everlasting life to the daughter of 


Early next morning Alexander himself came to fetch Thecla. 
She was snatched from the arms of Tryphsena, and was again 
exposed naked in the theatre. A lioness was brought, but it lay 
at her feet; a leopard burst, and a bear was killed by the lioness. 
Then a lion was brought, but he and the lioness fought till both 
were dead. Whilst other beasts came against her she looked 
round and saw a pond of water. Invoking the name of the 
Christ, she leapt into it, as to her baptism. ,Many evil beasts 
which were in the water died, whilst a cloud of lightning encom- 
passed her, screening her from view. 

Then Alexander brought out two bulls. Thecla was bound 
between them with ropes, red-hot spits were applied to their 
thighs, but as the bulls sprang up, a flash of fire consumed 
the ropes, setting Thecla free. Tryphaena fainted, thinking that 
Thecla was dead ; and this alarmed Alexander, who ran to the 
Governor, and begged him to release Thecla, and thus save 
Tryphaena, who was of the family of Caesar. 

Thecla was then brought before the Governor, and when she 
had confessed her faith in the Christ, he ordered clothes to be 
brought for her, and all, especially the women, joined in praising 
God. Tryphaena was converted, with many of her maidens, and 
Thecla remained eight days in her house, teaching her God's 
commandments. But the maiden could not forget Paul. She 
sent messengers to seek for him, and they found him in the city 
of Myra. She dressed herself like a man, and took many people 
with her, even some of the queen's maidens, and went to Myra. 
Paul was astonished, and took her, with her attendants, to 
the house of Hermaeus. There she related all that had 
befallen her, and after they had prayed for queen Tryphena, 
Paul sent her to the city of Iconium with a commission to 

Thecla went to the house of Onesiphorus, where she learned 
that Thamyris was dead, but that her mother Theocleia still 
lived. She had the satisfaction of trying to persuade her mother 


to believe in the Christ, then she went to Seleucia, where she 
taught for some time, and where she died in peace. 

The Latin Church commemorates Thecla on Sept 23rd. 
She is said to have died in Isauria, or Lycaonia, her native 
province, and to have been buried at Seleucia, where a magni- 
ficent church was built over her remains. The great cathedral 
of Milan is dedicated to her. But her body is supposed to rest 
in a chapel formed out of a natural cave in the Convent of 
St Thecla at Ma'lula in the Lebanon. 

The Greek Church commemorates Thecla on the 24th of 
September, under the titles of IlpaTOfjidpTvs and 

It also commemorates two other martyrs of the same name, 
one of them on June gth, Sept 6th, and Nov. 2Oth, slain with 
the sword, the other on August ipth, slain by a wild beast 
at Gaza. 

An Arabic inscription several centuries old at the back 
of the first leaf of the famous Codex Alexandrinus (A) of 
the Greek Bible, states that it was written by the hand of 
Thecla the martyr 1 . This is translated into Latin by another 
hand, which Mr Aldis Wright recognizes as Bentley's 3 . To 
Thecla is also ascribed the beautiful and complete little Psalter, 
which the monks of St Catherine's Convent on Mount Sinai 
show as one of their chief treasures. Though it can be read 
only through a microscope, no mistake has ever been detected 
on any of its twelve pages. Unfortunately for these traditions, 
scholars have assigned the Codex Alexandrinus, by the weight 
of its own internal evidence, to the fifth century. 

As the story has already been edited by one of the greatest 
of Oriental scholars, Dr William Wright of Cambridge, I have 
only given in Appendix II. a collation of the Syro-Antiochene 
text on that published by him. The chief differences between 

1 See Scrivener-Miller, Introduction, p. 98. 
' 2 Academy, April i7th, 1875. 


the two texts are that the former one always amplifies the 
saint's name into " the blessed Lady Thecla." 

In Dr Wright's text p. J^n a lacuna seems to exist in the 
sense, and this is filled up by our text on f. i6 a . The form 
^i^J^^K' "she tore herself with her nails," on fol. I4 b , is 


The story of Eugenia is nearly the same as that in Add. 
14,645, and Add. 14,649 of the British Museum MSS.; these 
being of the loth and pth centuries respectively. The Bishop 
is called oooolr^, not oocuW, in them both. His name is 
not mentioned in the Greek Zvvagapierfo. In Add. 14,645 
Eugenia's brothers are called oocO^.rjK' and &ai<X9Jto; in 
Add. 14,649 au^&aoD or oocx^aK' and au\OAO>, and in the 
Palimpsest K^^DK' and oa^jUo. In Add. 14,649 the name 
of her proposed bridegroom is not rdlAcuDrf but r^LiAracu. 
The names of her parents and of the two eunuchs are the 
same in all. In Add. 14,649 the man who was sent to depose 
her father Philip from the office of Eparch is called oocuvi^ 
instead of OOCUT^. 

The martyrdom of Eugenia is commemorated by the ortho- 
dox Greek Church on December 24th and by the Latin Church 
on Christmas-Day. Bedjan's text is from Add. 14,649 and 
Add 14,645 of the British Museum. 


The story of Pelagia is supposed to have happened between 
the years A.D. 449 and A.D. 45 1. It is as follows : 

The Bishop of Antioch in Syria had occasion to summon a 
council of eight bishops, amongst whom was St Nonnus, with 


whom was the narrator of the story, the deacon Jacob. They 
were all lodged in a hospice attached to the church where the 
bones of St Julian were preserved. 

One day whilst the eight bishops were seated before the 
church door, discussing various affairs, they asked St Nonnus 
to expound the Word of God. Whilst he was doing so, a rich 
courtesan passed before them, seated on a richly caparisoned 
horse, decked with pearls and precious stones, and accompanied 
by a host of servants. The air was scented by a profusion of 
aromatics, and the good bishops were astonished at the dazzling 
beauty of Pelagia, for such was the courtesan's name. 

They, however, turned away their faces from the ostentatious 
sinner. Nonnus fell on his knees and shed abundance of tears. 
When Pelagia had passed he said to his brethren, " Do ye not 
admire the beauty of the courtesan?" They did not reply. 
He then told them that his admiration of her beauty would 
impel him to seek more earnestly from God for her conversion 
to a purer life. Having returned to his cell, accompanied by 
the deacon, he took himself severely to task for his failure to 
serve God with as much zeal as Pelagia had displayed in her 
service of the Devil. The day was Saturday, and on Sunday 
morning (Divine service having been celebrated during the 
night) Nonnus called Jacob, and told him that he had seen in 
a dream how he himself was standing near the horns of the 
altar, and how a black dove, squalid and dirty, flew above him. 
When the congregation had departed and he had left the 
church the dove flew near him. He stretched out his hands, 
and catching it, threw it into the bath of water on the floor of 
the church. There it was cleansed, the foul odour which had 
accompanied it disappeared, and it soared up to heaven. 

Then St Nonnus with the seven other bishops and Jacob the 
deacon went to the largest church in Antioch. After the liturgy, 
the Archbishop sent the archdeacon to St Nonnus with a Gospel 
and the permission to teach. This Nonnus did, not in words of 


human wisdom, but by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit ; till 
the floor of the church became wet with the tears of the listeners, 
amongst whom was Pelagia, who was well known in the city, 
and who confessed her many sins in an audible voice. When 
the moment came for the celebration of the sacred mysteries 
she went out, but commanded two of her servants to remain as 
spectators, and to watch when Bishop Nonnus should come out, 
so that they might find out for her where he was lodging. She 
then wrote a letter to him, in which she professed her deep 
penitence, reminding him that the Saviour ate and drank with 
publicans and sinners. He replied that he could not receive a 
visit from her alone, as he was only a weak man, liable to 
temptation, but that he was willing to see her in the presence of 
his brother bishops. When Pelagia had received this letter she 
hastened to the church of St Julian, where St Nonnus received 
her with his colleagues. She threw herself on the ground and 
embraced his feet with tears, throwing dust on her head, and 
begging for the remission of her sins. 

All the bishops and presbyters who were present were moved 
to tears. Nonnus professed his willingness to baptize her, but 
said that by the canons of the Church she must have sponsors. 
Pelagia then with great vehemence and copious tears told him 
that God would require her soul at his hands if it were lost 
through his refusal to baptize her; and that he would also be 
held to be a partaker of the guilt of her future sins, and 
begged him to admit her, as his divine Master would have 

NOJMIUS then sent Jacob to the Archbishop, to ask his 
permission for Pelagia's baptism, and also that a deaconess 
should be sent to him. Jacob returned with a Roman lady, the 
Superior of the deaconesses, who with some difficulty persuaded 
Pelagia to rise. After due confession and preparation she was 
baptized, and received the holy sacrament from the hands of 
Nonnus. She stated that Pelagia was the name given to her by 


her parents, but that latterly, on account of her many ornaments, 
she had frequently been called Margarita. 

Then the Devil appeared to Nonnus in the form of a black 
looking man, and showered imprecations upon him for the many 
thousands whom he had baptized, and had thus delivered from 
the power of evil ; and most of all for abducting his most perfect 
hope, Pelagia. Receiving no encouragement, the enemy of all 
good next turned to Pelagia, and upbraided her with ingratitude, 
pouring out on her the most bitter reproaches. By the advice 
of Nonnus she made the sign of the cross, and Satan forthwith 

Two days later, however, the Devil returned to Pelagia as she 
was quietly sleeping beside the Roman deaconess, and reminded 
her of the great wealth which he had procured for her* But she 
made the sign of the cross, exclaiming, "The Lord rebuke 
thee ! " and awoke the deaconess. Whereupon Satan fled. 

On the third day Pelagia gave freedom to all her slaves, and 
offered all her wealth, which she had won by an evil life, to the 
discretion of Bishop Nonnus, who bestowed it on the treasurer 
of the great church at Antioch, with the request that none 
of it should be allowed to enter the church itself, nor any 
dwelling of the clergy, nor might it be hoarded in any way, but 
that it should be at once distributed amongst orphans, widows, 
and the sick poor. 

For seven days Pelagia fasted from food and drink, showing 
an example of temperance and of chastity. On the eighth day, 
which was Sunday, she was expected to put off the bridal 
robes of her baptism, and to put on a woman's ordinary dress. 
Towards nightfall, however, she went to Bishop Nonnus, and 
after receiving his blessing, begged him to give her some of his 
own garments. He accordingly bestowed on her his hair tunic 
and woollen mantle. During the night she went out in the 
dress of a man and was never again seen in the city. There 
was great consternation and grief about her disappearance, but 

L.B. * 


Nonnus said that she had chosen the good part, like Mary, and a 
few days later the Archbishop dismissed the bishops, each one 
returning to his own town. 

Three years later the deacon Jacob went on a pilgrimage to 
the Holy City, and Bishop Nonnus requested him to make 
enquiry about a eunuch named Pelagius, from whom he might 
receive much benefit After he had performed his devotions at 
the sacred shrines, he succeeded in finding this person in a cell 
at the summit of the Mount of Olives, and saw in his face 
something like the features of Pelagia, defaced and withered by 
long fasting and many vigils. She recognised him ; but he was 
quite unaware of her identity, until hearing of her death a short 
time afterwards he attended her funeral, and was present along 
with the bishop and many other holy men when they discovered 
that she had been a woman. She was buried with great honour, 
having in her last years enjoyed the reputation of being a saint, 
and Jacob was thankful that he had received her benediction. 

It is interesting to find that while Gildemeister's text states 
that Jacob prayed and was blest by the sepulchre of our Lord, 
the Syro-Antiochene Palimpsest says that he prayed and was 
blest by our Lord in all the places which he visited (near 

Nonnus is mentioned by Theophanes, as being Bishop of 
Edessa, Chronographia^ p. 79. 

TOVTOV 8e TOV xpbvov" he says, " Nowo? 6 0o<f>6po$ 
TV\V r&v 'ESeo-cnjz/eSi/ 'E/e/cA^criaz/, 6 ryv Trpwryv r&v 
T eo> a^e/owow, real avrl Mapyapirovs 
avrrjv Il\ayiav Trapaerrjo-as ro3 X/Hcrrc5." 

Pelagia is commemorated by the Greek and Latin Churches 
on Oct. 8. 



The story of Mary, otherwise called Marinus, or Marina, is 
also found in three of the British Museum MSS., Add. 14,649 
(gth century), Add. 12,172 (loth century) and Add. 14,722 
(Carshuni, I3th century). In these MSS. the tale has not the 
exordium of the Syriac Palimpsest. It relates that her mother 
died when she was seven years old. After her admission into 
the monastery, and the death of her father, she goes on a 
journey by command of the Abbot, and lodges, not at an inn, 
but in the house of a believer ria-ca2a. On returning, she 
is not allowed to see the Abbot, but is compelled to sit outside 
the convent, without any opportunity of exculpating herself; 
and this she does for four years. The story is told with more 
conciseness than in the Palimpsest; but with less sympathy 
and fewer picturesque details. It is free from the absurdity of 
Marina's self-accusation. The handwriting of both is of con- 
siderably later date. 

Bedjan appears to have made use chiefly of a manuscript 
from Mesopotamia, date unknown. The Greek Church com- 
memorates this saint on February 1 2th, and the Latin Church 
on June i8th. Her relics were brought "from Constantinople to 
Venice in A.D. 1230, and are venerated there in a church which 
bears her name. The festival of their translation is kept at 
Venice on July i/th. 


This story, as told in the Syriac Palimpsest, is almost in the 
same words as in Add. 14,649 of the British Museum (9th 
century) ; Bedjan's text has a collation from the latter, but is 
chiefly from a paper MS. in Paris of the 13* century. The 


word viator* in the penultimate line of f. 82 b of the Palimpsest 
is probably a singular spelling for f^LisA^. 

The Greek Church commemorates Euphrosyne on Septem- 
ber 25th. She has no place in the Calendar of the Latin 
Church. Her story is also told in Add. 12,172 and R. F. XLIX. 
of the British Museum (roth century). 


The story of Onesima is also told in the British Museum 
MSS. Add 14,649, Add. 14,650 and R. F. XLIX. There are some 
slight variations in the tale, for instance the B.M. MSS. make 
the beasts of the desert sit round the saint from the sixth till the 
ninth hour, our Palimpsest from the third hour till the ninth. 
The Palimpsest states that the portress had sat at the door of 
the convent for 40 years, the B. M. MSS. extend this to 
102 years. This is not the only example which these " Select 
Narratives" furnish of how ancient legends become more 
wonderful as time rolls onward. 

I can find no mention of Onesima in the ^vva^apicr^, nor 
in the Calendar of the Latin Church. 

Bedjan's text is from two paper MSS. in Paris of the twelfth 
century and also from Add. 14,649 of the British Museum. 


No Syriac manuscript in the British Museum contains 
the story of Drusis. But there are hymns in her honour in 
Add. 14,505 and Add. 17,134, the latter being probably, as 
Dr Wright thinks, in the autograph of the famous Jacob 
Bishop of Edessa. 

There is also a homily on Drusis by Chrysostom (11. 688) 
He relates how she found in the furnace a fountain of clear 


water; and how she ascended to her heavenly Bridegroom 
purified both by water and by fire. But he says nothing about 
her being the daughter of Trajan, nor about her being betrothed 
to Hadrian. We may therefore suppose that while the legend 
may contain a kernel of truth, these Imperial relationships of 
the martyr are simply the outgrowths of popular imagination. 
Drusis is commemorated by the Greek Church on March 
22nd. There is no mention of her in the Calendar of the 
Latin Church. 


There is no Syriac text of Barbara in the British Museum. 
But a reference to her relics will be found on p. 194, c. i, of 
Dr Wright's Catalogue. 

Barbara is commemorated by the Greek Church on De- 
cember 4th. 

The Suz/afapiOTT;? tells us that she was martyred during the 
reign of the Emperor Maximian, who is the Aximus of our tale, 
and that her father was a Greek. 

In a MS. of the British Museum, CCXLViii. (Egerton 68 1) 
we are told that the relics of St Barbara are entombed in a 
church in a poor Christian town named Camalisk-Gawerkoe, 
situated about six hours' journey to the southward of Mosul. 

St Barbara is commemorated by the Latin Church on 
December 4th. She was said to have been a scholar of 
Origen, and she is said by some to have suffered martyrdom 
at Nicomedia in the reign of Maximinus I. Others aver that 
she suffered at Heliopolis in Egypt, in the reign of Galerius, 
about A.D. 306, and this Joseph Assemani considers to be the 
most authentic. 



The text of this story is taken from Add. 17,204 in the 
British Museum, which belongs to the fifth century, and is 
written in a fine straight Estrangela hand, in two columns, the 
small stops being in red. There are few diacritical points, 
except the seyyame^ and that over the fem. pronom. suffix CD. 
As the text of the Palimpsest is three centuries later, variants 
from it only are given. The most remarkable of these is the 
word "three months" for "three days," given as the period 
during which Mary was imprisoned in her master's house, 
the longer period being of course in the later manuscript. 

The story is also found in Add. 14,649. 

I have failed to find it in the "ZwagapicrTfa although there 
are of course more illustrious saints of the same name. 

St Mary, the slave of Tertullius, is commemorated by the 
Latin Church on November ist 


No Syriac text of this story is to be found in the British 

Irene is commemorated by the Greek Church on May 5th. 

Other saints of the same name are commemorated on 
April i6th, June 5th, July 28th, August I3th. 

The name of Irene does not occur in the Calendar of the 
Latin Church. 

Tela, or Tela Mauzalet, otherwise called Constantine, in 
honour of the great Roman Emperor, who rebuilt it in AJX 350, 
was situated about fifty miles due east of Edessa (see Ecc. Hist, 
of John, Bishop of Edessa, R. Payne-Smith's translation, p. 437, 



There is a hymn in honour of Euphemiai in Add. 17,134 
of the British Museum. 

She is commemorated on July nth and September i6th. 
Other saints of the same name being mentioned on January 
4th, November igth, and November 22nd. 

She is also commemorated with Thecla on the fourth 
Friday after the Invention of the Cross. (See Dr Wright's 
Catalogue, p. 186, col. 2.) 

The Latin Church commemorates her on September i6th. 
Four churches in Constantinople once bore her name, also a 
very spacious one at Chalcedon, in which the fourth General 
Council of the Church, that which condemned Eutyches, 
assembled in A.D. 451. Her relics were transferred to the great 
church of St Sophia in Constantinople. They are now pre- 
served at Syllebria, a metropolitical see, on the Propontic shore, 
between Constantinople and Adrianople, but a portion is in the 
possession of the church of the Sorbonne in Paris. 


The story of Sophia and her three daughters is found in 
Add. 17,204, and Add. 14,645. As the former of these belongs 
to the fifth century, I have given its text, with the variants of 
that in the Syriac Palimpsest, and where some of its pages 
are missing, I have given the text of the Palimpsest, with 
variants from Add. 14,645 (loth century). 

Sophia and her three daughters are commemorated by the 
Greek Church on September I7th. 

Other saints of the same name are mentioned on May 22nd, 
June 4th, September i8th, and December i8th. 


The legend of Sophia may possibly have become intended 
for an allegory of the manner in which the Divine Wisdom, or 
in other words Christianity, with her three daughters, Faith, 
Hope, and Love, were received in the capital of the Roman 
Empire ; how their beauty was acknowledged, while they them- 
selves were derided, tortured, and slain ; how the death of the 
body had no real power over them ; and how they drew all 
men's hearts after them, so that their place of execution was a 
place of triumph both for this world, and for the world which is 

Two grains of truth may be found in the legend : Hadrian's 
cruelty to the Christians, and the painful nature of his mortal 

The name of this St Sophia does not occur in the Calendar 
of the Latin Church. 

The British Museum contains, besides the text which I have 
edited, from Add. 17,204, other texts in Add. 14,644 (5th or 6th 
century), Add. 14,650 (6th or ;th century), and Add. 14,645 
(loth century). 

Bedjan's text is from Add. 14,645 and Add. 14,644. 


The Syriac*text of the story of St Theodosia has been edited 
by Assemani in his A eta Martyrum Occidentalium, vol. n., p. 204, 
and on this I have collated the text of the Syriac Palimpsest. In 
the fifth year of the persecution, i>. A.D. 307, under Maximinus 
we are told that a holy virgin of Tyre, twenty-eight years old, 
saw some confessors of Christianity who had been brought to 
the Forum of Caesarea for judgment, and besought for herself 
an interest in their prayers, She was seized, and brought before 
the Prefect, who tried to persuade her to sacrifice to the idols. 
On her refusal she was subjected to atrocious tortures, from 
which she was at last released by drowning. The confessors, 


who had been greatly encouraged by her example, were con- 
demned to labour in the mines of Palestine. 

The Greek Church commemorates this saint on May 29th. 
The Latin Church on April 2nd. 


The Syriac text of this legend has been edited by Assemani 
in his Ada Martyrum Occidentalium, vol. II., p. 221. 

In A.U. 318, in the month of September, under the Emperor 
Licinius, there was a furious persecution of the Christians in the 
city of Philippi. Agrippa the Prefect had decreed a solemn 
feast to Apollo, at which all were commanded to sacrifice. A 
harlot named Theodota refused to do so, and was therefore 
thrown into prison. Seven hundred and fifty men, admiring 
her constancy, resolved to abstain from the sacrifice. Theodota 
was then deprived of both food and drink for twenty-one days ; 
but being again brought before the tribunal she confessed her 
faith in the Christ ; and was condemned by Agrippa to cruel 
tortures, which included the extraction of all her teeth. She 
was put to death by stoning. 

Theodota is commemorated by the Latin Church on 
September 29th. 


The text of the Creed which follows the story of Theodota 
will be found in my Introduction to The Four Gospels in Syriac, 
transcribed from the Sinaitic Palimpsest, by Robert L. Bensly, 
J. Rendel Harris, and F. Crawford Burkitt, pp. viii xiv. 

L. B. 



As the story of Susan belongs to the Old Testament 
Apocrypha, I intended giving only a collation of the Palimpsest 
text on that of Walton, in an Appendix, I did not begin to do 
this until after part of Cyprian and Justa was already in print ; 
and I then discovered that the text of Susan represents quite 
an independent translation from 'the Greek ; and that a collation 
would not only occupy more space than the story itself, but 
would be very troublesome to the reader. Therefore the tale is 
printed in full as Appendix I, 


Eterno sera en el mundo 

El majico Cipriano. CALDERON. 

I have printed the text of the fifth century British Museum 
MS. Add. 12,142, giving that of the Syriac Palimpsest where 
this is deficient The variants are from the Palimpsest, ex- 
cepting where its text takes the place of honour, and there 
the variants are from Add. 14,645. 

The peculiar interest of this story lies in the fact that it 
is the original form of a legend which, during the Middle Ages, 
rooted itself in popular superstition, and which has in later 
times blossomed again in the very highest walks of literature. 
Cyprian's demon, like the little Afrit of the Arabian Night J 
Entertainments, has left his bottle, and has expanded under 
the fostering care of a Marlowe, a Calderon and a Goethe 
till he fills the world with his presence, and he is recognised 
wherever the " Geist der stets verneint," shows his ugly face. 
We are indebted to a paper by Mr Baring Gould in the 
Contemporary Review for 1877*, and to the able work of 
1 Early Christian Greek Romances, Contemporary R&vieiv, Oct. 1877 (p. 864). 


Dr Theodore Zahn, Cyprian von Antiochien und die deutscJie 
Faustsage for our information about the origin of the legend. 

Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, was martyred on Sept i;th 
A.D. 258. According to the martyrologies, a woman named 
Rosula suffered at the same time. Popular imagination seized 
on an admission which Cyprian had made to Donatus regarding 
his conduct before his conversion, and it exaggerated this into 
a confession that he had committed some heinous crime. The 
Greek romance of Cyprian and Justa, appearing about a century 
after his death, was an embodiment of those vague ideas which 
were current amongst the people. 

St Gregory of Nazianzus, who died in A.D. 390, in his oration 
on the festival of St Cyprian of Carthage, adopts this romantic 
story. The historical Cyprian died on Sept. I4th, i6th or i/th 
and the fabulous one on Sept. 26th. The Anglican Reformers 
cut the real one out of the Calendar, and retained the fabulous 

The Latin Church commemorates SS. Cyprian and Justina 
on Sept. 26th ; but it does not confound the former with his 
great namesake. 

The Greek Church commemorates them on Oct 2nd, and 
a Cyprian and Juliana, who may possibly be the same, on 
Nov. ist. Three later saints of the same name are remembered 
on March loth, July 5th, and Aug. I7th but the real Cyprian 
appears to be quite overlooked. Some trace of his influence 
may be noticed, however, in the story of Cyprian and Justa, 
as related in the Swafapwrnfc. 

" He (Cyprian) was a native of Karchedon, or Karthagena in 
Libya, but he dwelt in Antioch of Syria, in the time of the 
Emperor Decius, in the year 250." 

Here the real and the fictitious personages are evidently 
mingled, the former belonging to Carthage, the latter to 

A foot-note of the editor informs us that the body of the 


great. St Cyprian was hidden by a woman named Matrona or 
Rufina, a kinswoman of the Emperor Claudius. 

Eudoxia, consort of Theodosius II., turned the legend into 
a metrical form, in imitation of the Homeric epics. She had 
done the same with the Octateuch, or first eight books of the 
Greek Bible, whilst spending her latter years in Jerusalem, 
A.D. 441 460, but these compositions are not of great literary 
value 1 . 

It is very interesting to observe how this simply told legend 
has been glorified by the genius of two modern dramatists, one 
a gifted representative of the Latin races ; the other, possessing 
the very loftiest intellect of any purely Teutonic people. 

Calderon's play is evidently moulded on the Christian legend. 
Its first acts are commonplace, being remarkable only for verbal 
quips and cranks ; but with the sale of Cyprian's soul to the 
demon it rises to a higher plane, and occasionally touches a 
point of real sublimity. 

It begins with the demon introducing himself to Cyprian 
a lonely scholar who is vainly searching for some light on 
the nature of the true God, and on the question " Are there 
many gods, or only One?" It then passes to an impending 
duel between two young nobles, Lelio and Florio, who are 
rivals for the love of the beautiful Christian maiden, Justina. 
Cyprian pacifies them and averts the duel, by offering to call 
on the young lady and ascertain which of the two gallants 
she prefers. He does so, and is himself smitten by her beauty ; 
whilst his two servants, Moscon and Clarin, fall madly in love 
with her maid Livia. Livia settles her own affair by agreeing 
to favour either swain on alternate days, but Justina refuses to 
hear a whisper of courtship from anyone. Her father Lisandro, 
is in great embarrassment, not only from his being deeply in 
debt, but because he apprehends a fresh persecution of the 
Christians. Cyprian, believing himself alone, bemoans aloud 

1 See Dr Rendel Harris' Homeric Centones, p. 36. 


his hopeless love, and declares his readiness to give away his 
soul if by doing so he might gratify it. The voice of the 
demon replies : " Yo la azeto," " I accept it." Sounds of 
thunder and tempest, with flashes of fiery lightning, seal this 
pact, and the demon steps out of a black boat from a stormy 
sea in the guise of a sailor. He introduces himself as a learned 
scholar, and offers to teach Cyprian the art of magic, so that 
he may weave irresistible spells around his lady love, but on 
the condition of selling his soul. Cyprian accepts the offer, and 
signs the deed with his own blood. 

The demon in the meantime has ruined the reputation of 
Justina by climbing down from her balcony, in the guise of 
a man, whilst Lelio and Florio are watching the house during 
the night. For a whole year Cyprian lives with the demon 
in a dark cave, and on the anniversary of the day when he 
signed the fatal compact, he emerges glorying in his own 
proficiency in magic, able as he phrases it, to give lessons to 
his master, and confident of being able to draw Justina into 
his meshes. Clarin, one of his servants, follows his example 
by signing away his soul in blood from the desire of possessing 
Livia. Evil spirits haunt Justina, and ghostly voices suggest 
to her that the greatest glory of this world is love. The demon 
urges her to seek Cyprian, and even uses force to draw her 
towards him, but when she exclaims " My defence is in God," 
he is obliged to release her. He then resorts to stratagem and 
produces a phantom, clad in Justina's robes. Cyprian, believing 
that she has come in answer to his call, lays siege to her, and 
is about to embrace her, when on removing her veil, he discovers 
that she is a skeleton. Frozen with horror, he hears voices 
saying " Thus, Cyprian, are all the glories of the world/' He 
demands the blood-written schedule back from the demon, who 
refuses to give it up, on the plea that the undertaking had been 
fulfilled, for he had drawn Justina into Cyprian's arms. Cyprian 
obliges him reluctantly to confess who had protected the maiden, 


and to declare further that there is only one Almighty God, who 
is perfect goodness, and that this God is the God of the Christians. 
The demon then insists that Cyprian has become his slave and 
reveals his own personality. They engage in a struggle which 
threatens to become a mortal one for Cyprian, but as the demon 
is squeezing the breath out of him, he suddenly exclaims : 
" Great God of the Christians ! I fly to Thee in my troubles," 
and he is at once released. 

The Governor of Antioch then appears on the scene, and 

agrees to release Lelio, his own son, and Florio, who have been 

imprisoned for disorderly conduct. Then comes Cyprian, who 

is supposed to be mad, because he is proclaiming aloud his 

faith in the One Unseen God. The play ends with Cyprian and 

Justina mounting the scaffold together, Justina comforting her 

lover with the assurance of the Divine mercy. The actual 

execution is not seen; but as their bodies and severed heads 

are being shown to the populace, the demon springs upon the 

stage, and confesses aloud that he had calumniated Justina; 

that Cyprian had washed the schedule clean with his life-blood ; 

that the two were now happy ; and that he was forced by God 

to make the declaration. With this very stagey device the 

play ends. 

The chief difference between this story and that of our 
legendary text is this : that in the former Cyprian is himself 
the lover of Justina ; and in the latter he employs demons to 
allure her into the net of a client who asks for his intervention. 
Calderon's drama is certainly on a far higher plane of literary 
merit than is the legend ; but the sublimity to which it rises is 
sadly spoiled by the lame device of the demon's confession. 

Goethe has taken the story of Christopher Marlowe's Faust 
as the foundation of his own great drama, and he departs much 
more widely from the early Christian legend, Faust himself, as 
Dr Zahn has remarked, is the product of a society which had 
for centuries been permeated by Christian sentiment, and he 


seeks to penetrate the mysteries of Nature, of human Destiny, 
and of the Deity, by the aid of magic, before the arch demon 
Mephistopheles proffers his help. 

Margaret is very unlike the pure, chaste and somewhat 
colourless conception of Justina, she is more human and 
appeals much more strongly to our sympathies. Margaret 
has one point in common with Calderon's hero and heroine; 
we receive a hint of her escape from thraldom and of her actual 
salvation immediately after her appeal to God for protection. 
Faust and Gretchen do not die the death of martyrs ; but their 
life-story forms the framework of one of the most profoundly 
philosophical and charmingly natural of dramas. 

Bedjan's text of Cyprian and Justina is from a manuscript 
in Berlin (Sachau No. 222). 

The British Museum contains, besides the text which I have 
edited from Add. 12,142, some fragments of the story in 
Add. 14,629, Add. 12,174 and Add. 14,738. 

The story of Cyprian and Justa, in Arabic and Greek, from 
Sinai MSS. will be found in No. VIII. of Studia Sinaitica. 


BY the strength of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of f. 2 b 
the Living God, I begin, I the sinner, John the Recluse of 
Beth-Mari Kaddisha, to write select narratives about the 
holy women, first the book of the Blessed Lady Thecla, 
disciple of Paul, the Blessed Apostle. My brethren, pray 
for me. 


The Acts and the Martyrdom of the Blessed Eugenia f. 21 a 
and of her father Philip and of all who were martyred with 

Whilst Commodus was reigning, ruler of the transitory 
world, in the great and famous city of Rome, in his own 
seventh consulate, he gave the command of a province to 
Philip, one of his magnates, and sent him to Alexandria 
the great city, which is in the land of Egypt, and he thus 
gave him the command of all who were in the country, 
rich and poor, great and small, and of all the Roman 
troops who were there, that they should be obedient and f. 21 b 
submissive to the laws and to the commandments which 
should be established and decreed to them by him. Now 
when Philip received the command of the province from 
the Emperor with his consort Claudia and his two sons, 
Avita and Sergius, and his daughter the virgin Eugenia, 

L. E. A 


they travelled from Rome to Alexandria and arrived 
quickly. But immediately when they had entered that 
country he sent decrees through every city and province, 
and thus it was written in them. By the commandments 
of the victorious Emperors. All the Egyptians shall be 
governed by th$ laws of the Romans, and they shall live 
by their customs continually. 

Now Eugenia the daughter of this Eparch Philip was 
about sixteen years old, and she was proficient in much 
wisdom and in the learning of the Greeks and the Romans, 
and she was very skilful in speech ; so that the philosophers 
and the wise men were amazed at her wisdom and her 
discourse and at the erudition of her mind. 

Now upon a certain day her father asked her, saying to 

her, Art thou willing, my daughter, that I should betroth 

f, 22 a thee to Aquilina the son of Hypatus? For behold! we 

know him that he is a wise and rich man and worthy of 

being thy betrothed. 

But she answered and said to her father: It is ex- 
pedient that I should espouse him who loveth integrity, 
and purity, and holiness ; rather than this man concern- 
ing whom thou hast told me that he hath transient 
riches and possessions. For far better is he who hath 
promised glorious things to the soul which is pure 
from evil, than the natural man who is mortal and transi- 
tory. For there had fallen into her hands the book of the 
story of the discipleship of Thecla the holy virgin, and of 
Paul the Apostle ; and by it the eyes of her understanding 
were enlightened in the fear of God. For when she read in 
it she wept passionately in secret, continually, and sighed 
bitterly; and she was the more grieved because she was 
the daughter of people who were heathens and were 
without the knowledge of God. Now truly when she 
f.22b read in this story of * the discipleship of Thecla the 


virgin, she was desirous in her soul, longing every day that 
she might be of the religion of the Christians, and continue 
in the doctrine and in the reading of their sacred books. 
And on a certain day she asked of her parents that they 
would grant this favour to her and allow her to go from the 
city to a certain village to amuse herself, and they consented 
and allowed her to go, because they loved her greatly. 

Now there went with her many eunuchs and servants 
for her honour. Now as the litter in which she was sitting 
with the pomp of noble women was going along, Eugenia 
was reading within it in the book of Thecla, and was medi- 
tating on a passage in it. And she said to the two eunuchs 
who were with her, whose names were these, Proteus and 
Hyacinthus: Do not disregard what the poets in the 
error of their hearts imagine and say concerning God, 
and what things also the philosophers in the error of their 
hearts falsify and deny about God, who is God in truth f. 23 a 
and verity. For is such truth perchance found amongst 
those who are called gods as that which is made known in 
these sacred books of theology about the true God and 
about His mighty power ? But little to a degree, and very 
miserable and childish is a soul which calls stones and 
bits of carved wood, blind and deaf and without feeling, 
gods, and calls them to its help. 

Now as the Blessed Eugenia said these things for the 
salvation of these her two eunuchs, the three of them 
began to consider together amongst themselves, discussing 
and investigating concerning the true God and concerning 
the worship of His Divinity. And they said to each other : 
There is nothing more important than this, that a man 
should fear the true God, and should be a worshipper 
and honourer of Him alone, in his faith and in his love and 
in his good works. Now when they had talked about these 
things and things like them with each other, as if in answer 


f. 23 b they heard the Christians who were singing and saying : 
All the gods of the nations are demons ; but the Lord made 
the heavens. 

When the Blessed Eugenia heard these things, she 
commanded that her litter should be instantly detained 
and should stand still. For the fear of the Christ entered 
into her heart when she heard this singing and she answered 
and said to the two eunuchs who were with her : We have 
quickly found evidence concerning the truth which the sacred 
books speak about concerning the true power of God who 
is to be worshipped, and about the perdition and vanity 
of the polluted worship of idols. But now we have learned 
the truth about both religions. What therefore shall we do 
that we may approach that glorious wisdom, and by means 
of a better life may be able to attain to these mysteries 
of the Divinity? Let us henceforth look to ourselves, 
my brethren. For how long shall we occupy ourselves 
with these useless things of error? Let us cast from 
ourselves all these vanities of this world, and instead 
of them let us meditate on the living words of God, and on 

f. 24 a saving faith. Let our minds be established, that by these 
things we may be able to flee and escape from the snares 
of Satan and from the net of the adversary, and that we 
may hold and may be established in the faith of the Christ 
the Saviour of the souls of men. 

And again the Blessed One answered and said to 
Proteus and to Hyacinthus : The fashion of this transient 
world has appointed me your mistress ; but now the fear 
of God, which is implanted in our hearts by His love, 
makes me your sister, and henceforth, my brethren, I 
counsel you that we be one soul in the faith of God, 
in one love of God, despising and rejecting all the honours 
and desires and luxuries of this world, and progressing 
in love and in faith, and coming near to the glories of 


the world that passeth not away for ever; having nothing 
opposed to us to hinder us by its hateful counsels that we 
should henceforth be removed from all this blessedness 
which meets us by the grace of God and by our good will. 

And now as I speak to you and instruct you, so do. f. 24 b 
Remove in the first place the hair from my head, and all 
.this ornament that is upon me, and take away your own 
afterwards, and let us change our dress and direct the 
course of our journey this night to believing people, 
the servants of the living God. Let the two of you 
holding me on my right hand and on my left, gently with 
secrecy let me down from this litter without anyone 
perceiving it; and let the litter be going on empty, and 
let those who are with it be imagining that I am sitting 
inside it, and we three all alike in man's clothing will go 
joyfully to the people of God. 

Now the counsel of the Blessed One pleased these 
eunuchs, and the next day they did joyfully as she had 
said to them. Now the Christ In whom they fully believed 
sent immediately in a very little while His grace to them. 
For as soon as she descended from her litter, and they f. 25 a 
began to travel and to go on the road, the saint of God, 
the bishop Helenus, happened to be accompanying them 
with a great multitude who were with him, praising and 
singing and saying together: The paths of the righteous are 
straight, and the paths of the holy are ordered. 

Then said the Blessed Eugenia to Proteus and to Hya- 
cinthus : Do ye understand the force of these words that 
they are singing now? Do ye know that upon us is 
accomplished the meaning of the words which we are 
hearing now from the Christians who are singing and 
praising their God; those which we also were speaking 
to each other yesterday concerning the truth of God, 
and concerning His mighty power ? For we heard before 


holy men singing and praising God and saying that all 
the gods of the nations are demons, and we removed 
ourselves far from the ruinous worship of idols : and now 
f. 25 b again lo ! we hear thousands of men singing together 
and saying: The paths of the righteous are straight and 
the ways of the just are equal. Now since we have heard 
these sacred words, let us go in with a good will and mingle 
with this crowd of singers, and let us be of them and be 
numbered in their ranks, that we may enter with them into 
the life that passeth not away, although we have been 
called late, as if at eventide, to the knowledge of the truth. 
Now when they had entered and mingled with the 
crowd of Christians, they asked some of them, saying: 
Who is that old man who is sitting by himself in the midst 
of the people in a high place as if in honour? But some 
of the crowd answered and said unto them : That is the 
bishop Helenus, who has been educated from his birth in 
a monastery of Christian people, he who by his acceptable 
prayers was saved from the midst of a burning fire ; and 
.26 a what is to be told concerning the beauty and excel- 
lence of his former deeds ! For lo ! a short time ago a 
certain wizard who dwelt here, whose name was Iraus, 
approached the people of the Christians with the wicked 
artifice of his magic, and desired to turn away their minds 
from the sacred writings of theology, and from the certain 
hope which is signified in their living words. He waxed 
bold in his wickedness and approached the bishop Helenus 
and began to speak to him vain words and of the corruption 
of his error. But when the holy man saw the impudence 
of his wicked words, and knew that he could not reply 
to him about the truth in words, he said with a loud voice 
in the presence of all the people who were assembled there : 
Why need we argue in words with the son of perdition 
who now disturbs us? For behold! he -is not willing to 


submit to our own words nor to our teaching that he may 
turn to the truth. For by the seductiveness and incitement 
of his words he has caused many to fall from the faith of f. 26 b 
God wherein they were standing. And behold ! down to 
the present time he is eager in his wickedness that he 
may subvert and throw down those who are established 
and confirmed in their faith from the hope of their God. 
But henceforth in the first place it is incumbent on us to 
show by an experiment and by a deed that it is God who 
guides and helps all those who believe in Him and rely 
upon Him. He who by the hands of me, His humble 
and weak servant, is ready to show the glorious power 
of His sovereignty and the sublime redemption which He 
works for all His servants who love Him with their whole 
heart in truth and in verity. 

And when the holy one, bishop Helenus, had said these 
things, he said again to all the people who were standing 
there and listening to them: Kindle a great fire in the 
midst of the city ; and let us enter it together, I and this 
son of perdition who is leading you astray, and let us 
stand in the midst of the flame. And the one of us whom 
his God shall rescue from the fire and who does not burn, f. 27 a 
his religion is true, and his God is the true God and 
is able to save. from the fire all those who trust in Him. 
And when the bishop Helenus had said these things, this 
counsel pleased all the people; they said to him: Thou 
hast well said. Now when they had kindled a great 
fire, the holy bishop Helenus commanded that they both 
should go in together without fear, and that thfey should 
stand in the midst of the flame. But the wizard answered 
and said: Let it not be thus ; but let us enter each of us 
alone. Now go thou in first, because thou hast counselled 
and incited the people that this should happen. And 
immediately, swiftly, the Blessed Helenus, with great con- ' 


fidence in God his helper, spread out his hands towards 
heaven, and with sobs and with many tears called to God 
in his prayers, saying: Thou knowest, our Lord Jesus the 
Christ, Son of the Living God, the readiness of my soul ; 
f. 27 b Thou wert the fourth who didst appear to the three children 
of the house of Hanania in the midst of the furnace of fire. 
Thou knowest, my Lord and my God, that I had not one 
wish for human glory ; but all my labour and longing and 
the eagerness of my soul is for the redemption of Thy 
people, over whom in Thy grace Thou hast appointed me a 
shepherd, whom the enemy and hater of good by means of 
his minister hath plotted to turn from the plain path of life. 
And because of this, for the redemption of Thy people I go 
joyfully into this fire, for there I shall find Thee before 
me. But sprinkle upon me swiftly the dew of Thy mercy, 
so that this fire may not at all touch me. And when he had 
said these things in his prayers, he signed himself with the 
sign of the cross and entered, and stood confidently exulting 
in the midst of the flame of the fire a long time, whilst in 
nothing was he hurt by that fire. Then when the people 
who were assembled there saw this great miracle which had 
f.s8a happened they laid hold of Iraus the wizard and without 
his consent threw him into the fire. But when he began to 
bum the blessed bishop Helenus ran and seized him by his 
hand so that he might rescue him. For although he was 
justly tortured in that fire, as his impudence deserved, yet 
the bishop Helenus seized and brought him out of it alive. 
But when all the people had insulted that wizard and 
stoned him with stones, they left him and went away from 

But him whom ye see, the grace of God has magnified 
him whilst continually without ceasing he praises and 
glorifies and exalts God, who by His hand hath wrought 
redemption for His people. 


Then the blessed Eugenia with those two eunuchs who 
were with her, Proteus and Hyacinthus, fell down before 
the holy bishop Helenus and did obeisance to him. And 
they implored and besought him to confirm them in the 
faith of the Christ; and they opened their mouths and 
persuaded him and besought him that by his hand they 
might approach* to the knowledge of God completely, f. 28 b 
The blessed one answered and said to them, My children, 
be ye continually in the church of God, and be ye 
zealous at all times in the holy service of your Lord, 
and thus the great day of the revelation of His coming 
shall find you watching and ready. 

But the blessed Eugenia besought him and said unto 
him, I beseech of thee, my Lord, pray for me, and com- 
mend me to God, He whom thou servest gloriously from 
thy youth. For we three, my Lord, are by family Romans, 
and children of those who worship idols. But the mercy 
of thy Lord and His grace hath called us. When we heard 
His voice we did not delay to follow it, but immediately 
swiftly we left the vain worship of idols. And as we were 
seeking to journey after the sacred footsteps of thy holiness 
the grace of God brought us hither. And when the blessed 
ones had related these things to the holy Helenus he was 
silent and did not speak to them, for all the things that 1 29 a 
had been related to him had been revealed to him by the 
revelation of the Holy Spirit. And because it was evening 
they knelt and received a blessing from him, and thus they 
departed from his presence. But on the following day they 
came to the church and desired to appear to the blessed 
bishop. But a certain priest who dwelt with him chanced 
to be there ; an illustrious and excellent man, whose name 
was Eutropius. And they persuaded him to go in and 
remind the bishop about them. And he went in to him 
with eagerness and said to him: Three young men, 
L. E. B " 


brethren, have come here of those who have forsaken the 
fear and the worship of idols, and they desire to become 
servants of the Christ, and to be numbered amongst His 
people, and to be amongst those who believe in Him 
and are admitted to His glorious mysteries. And they 
desire so great a gift by the hand of thy holiness and long 
to be worthy. Then said the blessed Helenus, I praise 
Thee, our Lord Jesus the Christ, that Thou hast caused us 
to attain to all this, and by Thy grace hast deemed us 
f. 29 b to be worthy. I will see those of whom Thou hast already 
told me by the revelation of the Holy Spirit And he 
commanded and they entered his presence, and he rose 
immediately and prayed. And when he had finished his 
prayer, he took hold of the hand of Eugenia with those two 
who were with her, and said to them, How have ye received 
the knowledge of the truth, and committed yourselves to 
God, and [how] did ye ask to see me His humble servant ? 
What have ye heard about me that ye have come to me ? 
Reveal it to me, for I wish to know it from you, and I 
seek to see the good fruits of your promptitude, if it be 
that you wish to approach God with all your mind. 

And the blessed Eugenia answered and said to him: 
We have considered amongst ourselves that it is not fitting 
that we should name the adorable name of God on stones 
and wooden things without feeling. And whilst we were 
discussing amongst ourselves which is the true religion in 
which the most high and adorable God delights, the grace 
of our Lord brought us hither. For we heard some of 
f. aoa you who were singing together and saying that all the 
gods of the nations are demons, but the Lord made the 
heavens. And when we heard this blessed voice, we dis- 
missed immediately and swiftly the religion of idols from 
us. And we forsook their worship in haste. And we came 
hither eagerly, and we journeyed with all the people of the 


believers in thy footsteps 1 , Father, whilst we were believing 
in God who will help us, that we may assent to thy faith, 
and be established in thy truth, and we may show by deeds 
the truth of the words which have been spoken by us to 
thy holiness. But we three are all of us brothers. One 
of us is named Proteus, and another Hyacinthus, and I am 
called Eugenius. And in reply to these things which 
bishop Helenus heard from Eugenia, he answered and said 
to her, Thou art well called Eugenius; because joyfully 
and heroically thou doest everything, and thy soul is 
perfected ; and thou approachest joyfully to the contest of 
Christ. But know that God has revealed and made known 
to us that thou art called Eugenia, and whence thou art f. 30 b 
come and whose daughter thou art; and who these two 
are who have come hither with thee, our Lord hath shewn 
it clearly to me; and by the good will that was in thee 
towards God also those ones are found perfect, and as- 
senters to thy faith. And he commanded them that they 
should be constantly three months in the churches and in 
the monasteries, that they might be helped by the sight 
and by the speech of many, and be established completely 
in the faith of God. And then afterwards he made them 
approach the baptism of atonement and made them par- 
takers of the glorious mysteries of the Divinity. Now 
when he had done all these excellent things to them he 
led them and brought them into a monastery of men 
and committed them to the Abbot, and commanded him 
concerning them that he should have a care over them. 
But their deeds he revealed to no one as yet. 

But at the first time of the discipleship of the blessed 
ones when Proteus and Hyacinthus had let down the 
blessed Eugenia from her litter, the litter went on empty, f. 3 la 
whilst the young men who were going before it and behind 

1 Literally in the footsteps of thy Paternity. 


it knew nothing about what had happened ; for they sup- 
posed that she was sitting in it and going. But the 
household of the blessed Eugenia when they thought that 
she had arrived from the village whither she had gone, 
went out to meet her with joy and to welcome her with 
exultation. But when they did not find her as they had 
expected, they lifted up their voice with weeping and with 
bitter wailing. 

And they enquired of those who were with her what 
had become of Eugenia. They excused themselves, Until 
we arrived here we did not know what had happened, 
but we were trusting that she was sitting in the inside of 
this litter. And after these things there was a tumult and 
a great uproar in all the cities and in that country. And 
every one was in distress and in great grief because of her. 
And she was sought for in every place and was not found, 
f. 31 b For her parents were mourning for their daughter ; and 
her brothers for their sister; and her servants for their 
mistress. And every citizen was plunged into great 
sorrow, because they saw in what a grief her parents and 
her household were because of her. And they went 
round about in all the places and provinces seeking for 

Now they inquired of the country people who were in 
that place and of the women who practised necromancy and 
they offered sacrifices to the idols on her behalf. And when 
they had sought for her in every place and she was not 
found, all the deluded people, the worshippers of idols, said 
this concerning her, The immortal gods have snatched her 
away, and she is exalted to heaven and she mingles with 
them. And when her father heard these things from the 
impostors he believed them, and his great grief and sore 
sorrow turned to much consolation. And they made her 
a statue of pure gold, and set it up in the city. But her 


mother Claudia, and her brothers Avita and Sergius found 
no way whatever of being consoled in their grief. 

Now the blessed Eugenia in the dress of a man with 
Proteus and Hyacinthus, in one perfect love, were in the 32 a 
monastery which we have already named progressing in 
the fear of God every day, so that in a short time they 
were repeating by heart all the Holy Scriptures. But 
while the blessed ones were occupied with these chaste 
and holy deeds three years afterwards the Abbot of that 
monastery in which Eugenia with her two eunuchs was, fell 
on sleep, and his soul went to his Lord in peace. 

And some time after the death of this Abbot it pleased 
all the brethren of this monastery to appoint Eugenia 
Abbot over them. But the blessed Eugenia declined this, 
for her conscience admonished her that she was a woman, 
and it was not fitting that she should be commander [and] 
governor to the men of God. And moreover she was 
afraid lest she might cause the minds of the brethren to 
stumble who were advising and persuading her to do this ; 
for she saw clearly that the minds of all of them were 
consenting to that idea. And the blessed Eugenia answered 
and said to them, Many a time ye have heard such words f. 32 b 
in your own synod, for ye say that our Lord Jesus the 
Christ will reveal and make known to us such things as be 
profitable according to His will. And now, if ye command 
it, let the holy Gospel be brought into [our] midst and let 
us stand and pray with fervour, and let us beseech the 
Lord that He will reveal and show to us such things as 
be profitable; and let us afterwards open and read, and 
whatsoever be the first passage that is found, let us assent 
to it, and let us hear it and do as it commands us. 

Now when the holy Gospel came and was placed in the 
midst, they all stood and prayed. And afterwards the 
blessed Eugenia took it in her two hands and kissed it and 


pressed it upon her eyes. And she worshipped the Lord 
and opened it And when they saw what she had done 
there was great quiet amongst them. And when she had 
opened it, she found the place in which it is written that 
our Lord said to his disciples, Ye know that the chiefs of 
the nations are their lords, and their great men rule over 
them. It shall not be so among you, but whosoever among 

f. 33 a you wishes to be the chief, let him be the servant and 
minister of every man. Now after this reading Eugenia 
said to them, Since ye have made known that this is your 
wish, it is incumbent upon us that we fulfil the command- 
ments of the Christ For it is required of a servant that 
he be obedient to his fellows in the fear of the Christ 
whilst he is cautious in his mind and in his estimation of 
himself; blameless and faultless let him draw near joyfully 
to God. When they had all assented to the words which 
the blessed Eugenia spoke to them, in order that she might 
not resist and vex them she accepted for herself only the 
title of Abbot But they entreated her and besought her 
that she would accept all the rule of .the monastery, as 
head and governor. She yielded to them also in this 
behaving amongst them with all humility and showing 
indeed the fruits of this humility. And the things which 
the last ought to do to the first in the service of the saints, 
she in her eagerness and in her humility used to do, all the 

f.33*> service pertaining to the fraternity; for she drew water 
from the well and cut wood and swept all the rooms of the 
convent, and fulfilled all the service of the brethren. And 
she made a little cell for herself by the side of the door of 
the monastery that she might be continually in it, that she 
might not be a burden on the brothers who were with her, 
and be better off in her dwelling than all those who were 
with her. For at the time of the service she would enter 
first and all the brethren would find her there. And there 


was not in all that fraternity any one who excelled her in 
humility, and at all times she was assiduous with the 
brethren, warning and teaching them that they should not 
use any oaths at all, but that the truth should be spoken 
amongst them with quiet speech. For we learn from the 
commandments of God that we should conduct ourselves 
with all propriety and holiness and humility and patience. 
And let us have this eagerness continually, that God may 
in nothing be despised by us through the transgression of 
His commandments. For he hath denied his Lord, who 
teaches his companions that they should do things which f- 34 a 
his Lord hath not commanded to be done. Now whilst 
they were learning these commandments every day from 
her, the brethren who were with her were the more con r 
firmed in their faith and in their love and in good works. 
For neither by day nor by night did she cease from 
prayer and from the reading of the Scriptures. Now 
whilst she was living such a life, there was given to her 
by means of the grace of God the gift of healing, so that 
she cast out demons from men by means of the sign of the 
cross of our Lord, and health was given from God by her 
hands to those who were sick and afflicted. But because 
our word is not sufficient to describe the excellency of 
each one of her first works, such as they were, we leave 
them and we come briefly to relate her chaste and holy 

Now the wife of a certain senator who was very rich in 
goods and in much wealth, whose name was Melania, had 
been sick of a fever and of an ague for a long time. She 
heard about the blessed Eugenia, that our Lord wrought f. 34 b 
healing by her hand to those who were afflicted ; and she 
sent for her. And the blessed Eugenia did not decline to 
go at once with those who came for her. And when she 
entered her presence and saw her, she immediately signed 


the sign of the cross on the breast and betwixt the eyes of 
Melania and prayed. And immediately her fever fled from 
her with her ague, and she was quickly made whole from 
her sickness. 

And immediately the blessed Eugenia returned swiftly 
to her monastery. But after these things that had happened 
Melania was sending continually to the blessed Eugenia 
and bringing her to her [self] not knowing that she was a 
woman. Now Eugenia went to her in the sincerity of her 
heart and in the uprightness of her soul. But Melania 
was not sending and fetching her with a sincere mind, nor 
yet as believing that by her prayers she had been healed 
of her sickness. But as she supposed that she was a man 
she spoke unseemly words to her, for she said, " Why dost 
f. 35 a thou trouble and vex thyself uselessly with fasting, and 
spoilest the appearance of thy youth ? Does God perchance 
love sad people, and those whose faces are miserable ; or 
is He pleased with those who make their bodies lean with 
hunger? Or is He glorified in those who flee from the 
marriage-bed ? Nor does He magnify those who crucify 
themselves more than their companions. Does He com- 
mand every man that he should accomplish the period of 
his life without joy and comfort ? Let us then draw nigh 
and make use of the good things of this world which 
are given to us by God, that we may not be like 
ungrateful people and like people who are unworthy of 
His gifts that are beside us. Believe henceforth to thy 
advantage and thy profit in those things which are 
spoken to thee by me. For when thou shalt be with me 
in one love, thou shalt be heir of all that I possess. And 
good times of enjoyment and of gladness shall pass over 
thee. And thou shalt be lord of all my possessions. Also 
of myself who am speaking to thee, and am persuading 
35 *> thee. For I am adorned with beauty and with loveliness 


and with gladness, and I have endless riches. And I 
consider that this is not wickedness ; and it is not sin before 
God, if thou wilt be my husband. And when thou shalt 
cast away from thee this mind in which thou hast been 
stedfast for many years thou shalt enjoy good things/' 

But when Melania had said these things and more than 
these in her madness and her magical art, the Blessed 
Eugenia rose up in much agitation, and withstood the 
words of perdition and of death with which Melania was 
clothed, and she wished to free the soul of the latter 
from corruption. And she tried to persuade her and said : 
The desires of this world are destroyers of the souls 
of men. And wherein a man thinks that he seizes for a 
little while the transitory desires of this world, he robs 
himself of the enjoyment which passes not away for all 
eternity. Therefore let us not seek bodily desires at all, 
because Satan our enemy endeavours by them to sink 
and destroy the souls of men. When these words were f. 36 a 
spoken passionately by Eugenia, Melania shut her ear 
that she might not receive what was spoken to her. For 
her thoughts were bound with strong fetters of shameful 
desires. As it is written, to a guilty soul wisdom 
entereth not. 

But Eugenia endeavoured and made a struggle that 
she might turn her if possible from the death of perdition 
towards salvation. And when she found no means of doing 
this, she departed from her, grieving about the destruction 
of her soul. But the mad Melania made herself sick and 
sent intercessors and persuaders to the Blessed Eugenia, 
so that she might come and see her and pray over 
her and she might be healed. And she went into her 
presence with confidence, and sat down beside her in an 
inner apartment. And she took hold of Eugenia without 
shame and wished to embrace her secretly. And she 


f. 36 b spoke to her unchaste and infamous words in her wicked- 

Then the Blessed Eugenia perceiving the treachery of 
Satan and the cunning of the mad woman his servant, 
stretched out her right hand and signed herself with the 
sign of the cross, and with weeping and with sobs said 
in a loud voice, Justly wert thou called Melania, for a 
heavy blackness and a putrid filth wells up within thee. 
Righteously art thou called Melania. For thou art the 
daughter of nameless sin and a guide to perdition to 
those who shall perish through thee, a daughter of ever- 
lasting Gehenna ; a troubled spring of putridity, a fountain 
running with shame and overflowing, the enemy of God 
and the abode of the Evil one. For there is not even one 
good thing in thy heart, because thou art the dwelling- 
place of Satan. And thou art not worthy to have part 
or company with the servants of God. 

Now when Melania had heard this contumely, she 

37 a flamed into a great rage not enduring the shame that was 
hers. For she reflected that perhaps this rumour would 
come to the hearing of men, and she would become a 
reproach and a derision in the eyes of all her acquaint- 
ances. And she went at once to Alexandria, and publicly 
in the sight of all the people she approached the governor 
of the city, and made an accusation before him against the 
Blessed Eugenia and said: I denounce a certain young 
madman who has been saying of himself that he is a 
Christian. I sent for him and fetched him, that he might 
cure me; because I had been told about him that he 
could cure those who were pained and afflicted, and heal 
them of their sicknesses. And when I had commanded 
that he should enter my presence he immediately began to 
speak shameful and vile words and would have led me 
into disgrace. And why is it necessary for me to say 


more? For at last he wished in his madness to assault 
me like a slave, and if a certain girl had not happened to 
be with me in my chamber, by whose help I escaped from f. 37 b 
his hands and he prevailed not against me, he would 
otherwise, as his lasciviousness inclined, have wrought his 
pleasure on me. 

Now when the governor had heard this accusation, he 
was greatly troubled. And he sent a troop of soldiers 
and commanded that she and all who were with her should 
be bound in iron fetters, and they should come speedily 
and their cause should be heard before all the people ; and 
afterwards they should be cast to the wild beasts. But 
when the day arrived on which it was decreed concerning 
them, that the examination of the Blessed Eugenia and of 
all those who were with her should take place, having put 
iron fetters on all their limbs and having bound them 
tight, they brought them in and made them stand up 
in the court in the sight of all the people. And when 
the crowd of people who had come together on their 
account saw them, not knowing the truth of what had 
happened, they lifted up their voice together and cried out 
against them, but those who were on the side of the mad 
Melania were shouting the more, and some of them were 38 a 
crying that they should be cast into the fire, and be put 
to death in it, and their lives should perish, others were 
crying out that they should be food for the wild beasts. 
And others said that they should be punished with severe 
and bitter punishments, as was befitting their impudence. 
For with one consent the mind of all the people was 
against them, as against people who had done something 
worthy of death. Then the governor commanded that 
the clamour of the people should cease ; and when they 
were quiet from what they were excited about, they 
brought in the Blessed Eugenia and set her in the court 


before the governor openly in the sight of all the people. 
And he began to question her, saying : What confidence 
induced thee to approach the patrician lady Melania for the 
purpose of offering her this wicked outrage ? Thou didst 
enter in the deceitful dress of the Christians, and as one 
skilful in the craft of healing, that thou mightest bring a 

f. 38 b woman of the aristocracy to the shame of wantonness. 
Did the Christ perhaps teach you to do things like these ? 
And is this the profession of your religion, that ye should 
do deeds of corruption and uncleanness ? 

But the Blessed Eugenia returned an answer with much 
courage to the governor saying: I was praying that I 
might overcome all the temptations which should come 
on me into my mind and conquer them. And that I 
might reserve this accusation of calumny and oppression 
for the judgment that is to be. But in order that the 
purity of truth may not be abashed by those who out of 
an evil mind unjustly attack it ; for purity which is guided 
by modesty cannot at all be hidden, for it will bring not 
merely the praise of men to those who love it, but it will 
be impelled to exist for the honour of God who gave it 
For chastity and holiness and modesty are preserved 
completely by wise men, and the soul of the Christian 
perfects all her works faithfully in the love of God. I 

f. 39 a declare this my mind publicly in the midst of and in the 
sight of all men. For by nature I am a woman. And I 
was not able to fulfil the desire of my soul regarding the 
fear of God, unless I changed myself into this chaste and 
honourable and excellent guise. And being a woman 
by nature, in order that I might gain everlasting life, I 
became a man for a short time, being emulous and imitating 
my teacher Thecla : she who despised and rejected the 
desires of this world, and became worthy of the good things 
of heaven by means of her chastity and her life. Therefore 


I praised, Oh governor, every man who longs for the good 
things that are with God, and him who because of the love 
of the Christ hungers for so great excellence, and for the 
weakness which imitates the strength of full grown men. 
And because of this I also by the impulse of the love of 
God and by the fear of His sovereignty took the dress 
of an adult man in private and in public, keeping my 
virginity spotless to the Christ my Lord. f-39b 

And when she had said these things, she rent the 
garment which she wore from the top as far as her girdle, 
and that which was hidden from the sight of men was 
instantly revealed, and the chaste breasts which were upon 
the bosom of a pure virgin were seen. And when she had 
done this, and convinced every one what she was, she 
at once swiftly covered and wrapped herself up with 
the rags which she had torn. And she continued and 
said to the governor : Thou art my own bodily father, and 
ye are my brothers Avita and Sergius. For I am thy 
daughter Eugenia, she who because of the love of Christ 
rejected this world and its desires with my two eunuchs 
Proteus and Hyacinthus who came with me to the covenant 
of the Christ, my Lord. And my Saviour Jesus the Christ 
has abundantly presented Himself to thee, that when I 
shall be to thee a teacher, the desire of the victory of the 40 a 
Christ, him in whom I believe and hope that he will keep 
me in purity until the end, may in the presence of every 
one come upon thee. 

Then the father recognized his daughter, and the 
brothers their sister. And they ran before all the people 
and embraced her, and kissed her weeping. This was also 
made known to her mother Claudia. And she ran in 
haste with her maid-servants to the theatre, and she also 
entered and wept before all the people, and embraced and 
kissed her weeping bitterly. And they brought costly 


robes and clothed her against her will. And in order 
that she might be seen by all men they lifted her and 
placed her on a high place. And all the people when 
they saw her shouted with a loud voice saying, One is our 
Lord, Jesus the Christ, the true God of the Christians. 

Now the Bishops, and the priests, and the deacons, and 
all the people of the Christians were sitting outside the 
theatre watching that when the saints should be put to 

f. 40 b death they might take their corpses, and bury them. 
They also went into the theatre praising and blessing God 
and saying, " Thy right hand, O Lord ! hath done mighty 
things; Thy right hand, O Lord! hath broken thine enemies. 
Now that the Blessed one hath been exalted above all 
men it has happened by the providence of God that by 
her modesty and by her dignity all who behold her might 
be helped. And that the glory of such modesty should 
not be concealed, all men seeing it, fire fell from heaven 
and burnt up Melania and all her house, and all that 
belonged to her. And there was great joy among all the 
people, and the church that had been closed eight years 
before was opened. And every one believed in the Christ, 
and became a Christian. And the Eparch was baptized, 
and his sons Avitus and Sergius. And Claudia, the 
mother of the Blessed -Eugenia, was baptized also, with 
all her hand-maidens ; and people of the heathen without 
number were turned to God. 

f. 41 a And the Christians recovered their privileges and were 

singing praises as of old with their former customs, and all 
Alexandria was like one church, and the presbyters only 
were governing and serving the church. For he who 
previously had been called of God as by the law and 
had been bishop, had died in the Lord. Then all the 
churches came together to Philip the Governor that he 
might be bishop over them. And when he became (bishop) 


by the grace of God which had called him, the holy 
Church held him in great honour. But though he was 
deemed worthy of this excellent degree of the Episcopacy, 
he also governed the affairs of the city, because that until 
now he held the command of the province. For he who 
should remove him from the command of the province 
had not yet arrived from the Emperors. 

And at length all the inhabitants of Egypt were 4* b 
converted by this means to the truth of the Christ from 
the religion of idols ; and the churches in all the cities and 
villages which eight years before had been shut by the 
heathen the persecutors of the truth, were opened ; and 
every day Christianity flourished and increased. 

And whilst all these reformations were taking place by 
the grace of the Christ, in all the churches of that country, 
Satan, the persecutor of good things and teacher of hateful 
things, and secret conspirer of evil things, awakened some 
heathens amongst the chief men of the city, and incited 
them to make it known to the Emperors, the Rulers of that 
time, and these erring heathen did everything with envy 
against the church of God and against the holy bishop 
Philip. And there was sent against the blessed bishop 
Philip a man who should depose him from the command of 
the province, whose name was Perinus, for the Emperors 
had given him power, that if w;hat they had heard against 
Philip from the chief men of Alexandria, were true, when 
he should reach him he should immediately slay him 42 a 
with the sword. Then Perinus arrived and entered the 
city with much pomp and pride. But he was not able 
to effect at once what had been commanded by the 
Emperors against Philip, because all the people of the 
city loved him greatly, and held him in great honour as 
a good shepherd and a diligent governor. Now when 
Perinus saw that he was not able to kill him publicly, 


he sent with guile against him wicked and rascally men 
who were dressed in the honourable fashion of the 
Christians. And when they had entered his presence 
in the church, they found the Blessed one standing in 
fervent prayer before God And when they approached 
him, that they might receive a blessing, they immediately 
struck him and killed him, as Zacharia was slain between 
the temple and the altar. He was in the office of a bishop 
one year and three months. And as he died in the con- 
fession and witnessing for the Christ, he went to his Lord 
in peace. 

f. 42 b But the Blessed Eugenia took up the body of her 

martyr-father, and wrapped it up carefully, and placed it 
by the side of the hostel which had been made by, her 
mother Claudia for the comfort of strangers and afflicted 
people, close to a place which was called Natira 1 . And 
by the solicitude of her brothers Avrtus and Sergius, a 
regal martyr-shrine was built upon it to the glory of the 
Christ, and for the help and edification of the souls of 
men. And when all these things were effectually finished, 
the blessed Eugenia with her mother Claudia and her 
brothers Avitus and Sergius went up from Alexandria to 
Rome, the grace of God accompanying them, through 
which they found favour before all the senate. And 
they were greatly welcomed by all men, so that one of 
them became proconsul in Carthage a city of Africa, and 
the other was appointed with honour over the country of 

f-43* But Claudia and Eugenia her daughter by the com- 

mandment of God were occupied every day with good 
works and chaste deeds which are pleasing to God. And 
they were turning many souls from the fear of idols and 
were bringing them near to God. And they were praised 

1 Perhaps "Nitria." 


by all the noble women of senatorial rank and by all the 
virgins amongst the chiefs, and they were all zealous to 
imitate their life in the fear of the Christ. 

But a certain virgin named Basilia, near of kin to the 
Emperor Gallienus, who was very prudent and wise, came 
secretly to the blessed Eugenia, and heard from her the 
word of truth. And immediately she was rooted in love 
in the depth of her understanding, and she believed 
fully in the Christ, so that no man was able from that 
time to uproot from within her heart the plant of faith 
in God. But because Basilia could not continually be 
seeing Eugenia, Eugenia gave Proteus and Hyacinthus her f. 43 b 
two eunuchs as a present to Basilia the virgin : and from that 
time, by day and by night, she was constant in the praise 
of God and in prayers and in reading of the sacred books. 

Then the bishop of the city, whose name was Soter, a 
pure and holy man, who was very eminent in the fear of 
God and in the training of the teaching of the sacred books 
of theology, came to Basilia, and baptized her in the holy 
font, for the pardon of trespasses and for the remission of 
sins, and from the sacred books of theology he confirmed 
the minds of all who were with her in the faith of the 
Christ, so that they all together were prepared to go 
forward and to become willing martyrs. All the time 
that Bishop Soter presided over the church, the Christians 
were in tranquility and peace, for not one vexation was 
aroused against them by the enemies. But Bishop 
Cyprian in the city of Carthage endured many suffer- 
ings and afflictions because of the faith of God. For f. 44a 
Maximus the Pro-consul by command of the Emperors 
who ordered him by means of letters, slew the holy Bishop 
Cyprian. Then Bishop Soter when he heard these things 
hid himself, and lived alone, but he taught many of the 
Roman citizens, honourable men, secretly. Now on a 

u E. J> 


certain day Basilia came to the blessed Eugenia, and 
when she saw her she received her with great joy. And 
Eugenia answered and said to her, This day our Lord 
has made known to me clearly that from thy face, which 
is like a rose much blood will be shed. Now this means 
that thou shalt have contended and conquered in the 
confession of the Christ, thou shalt receive from Him the 
crown of victory of thy martyrdom with joy. 

Now when the blessed Basilia had heard these things 
from the holy Eugenia, she lifted up her hands -to heaven 
and praised God with great joy. Now when they had 

f. 44 b prayed and finished their prayer, they sat down, and 
Basilia said to Eugenia, "To both of us as I see, our 
Lord and our Redeemer Jesus the Christ has revealed 
and shown us the glory of our crowns. For as thou 
hast seen regarding me, so also to me the Christ has 
already made known the time of thy departure. For I 
saw that thou didst receive two crowns from heaven, one 
because of the struggle for thy virginity which thou hast 
made, and hast kept it spotless to the Christ; and the 
other one because thou shalt struggle in the conflict, 
and shalt conquer the enemy, and thy blood will be shed 
because of the Christ These things thou art about to 

Now when the blessed Eugenia had heard these things, 
she rejoiced and exulted greatly, and called all the virgins 
who had been drawn to the fear of God by her means and 
who longed to preserve their virginity pure to the Christ, 
and persuaded them that they should pray with her, and 
commit her in their prayer to God. And after they had 
finished their prayer, she began to talk with them, saying 
to them : Now the time of vintage has arrived in which the 

f. 45 a first-fruits are to be gathered, about which our Lord Jesus 
the Christ hath made known to me by means of the mysteries 


which He hath revealed to us beforehand. And now, 
my beloved ones and my disciples, send ye me in the 
first place before you to our Lord. And be ye also 
watching and making ready that ye may go out to meet 
the Christ, your betrothed, whilst your lamps are shining. 
For the beauty of virginity appears first of all before God, 
for it is the likeness of the angels which are in heaven. 
And it is near to God the Almighty, and it is akin to the 
life that is about to be revealed, and the mother of modesty 
and the teacher of purity. And a mistress 1 without care, 
and the height of happiness, and zealous for chastity, and 
the illustrious crown of faith, the hope and succour and 
honour of those who love it ; the glory of the soul, and 
eternal rest, the cause of good things and the guide to the 
kingdom of heaven. Let there be for you no other labour 
and urgency like this, that you may keep your virginity 
purely and holily to the Christ the Son of God your 
betrothed. For there are in this world incitements and 
wicked desires, which remain for a short time with their 45b 
lovers, and afterwards beget weeping and sobbings in the 
Gehenna of fire. These in their beginnings appear exhila- 
rating to men, but in the end they torture those who do 
them with bitter punishments and sore torments which are 
endless. For they do their deeds without care in this 
transitory world that they may be condemned completely 
in everlasting endless torture. And now, my daughters, 
honoured virgins, who bravely and believingly keep your 
virginity along with me, remain in the love of each 
other and in the love of God in which ye dwell and in 
which ye are abundantly confirmed. For it is time now 
that ye mourn and cry to God because of the former time 
which has passed away, when error had fast hold of 
you, that ye may be filled with everlasting joy, before 
1 Or " Martha." 


the face of God Almighty. But I have committed you 
to the Holy Spirit of God, whilst I believe and it is 
certain to me that He will receive you in His kingdom 

.46 a spotless and blameless. Therefore do not seek for my 
bodily appearance but let each of the beautiful examples 
that I have shown you in my day be continually before 
your face. And remember my teaching, humble though I 
be, and love it every day. 

When she had taught these things and things like them 
and had committed them (to God) she kissed them all with 
a holy kiss weeping. After she had saluted them, she 
said: Be ye sound and true in our Lord, my daughters 
and my sisters, for Basilia and Eugenia your sisters are 
departing from this world to our Lord. But at that time, 
one of the maidens of Basilia went to Pompeius her 
betrothed and said to him, Dost thou know that thy 
betrothed, the Lady Basilia, has been persuaded by 
Eugenia to decline to be thy wife ? And when Pompeius 
heard these things from that girl, he was greatly troubled 
and angry at Eugenia, and was sore distressed because 
of Basilia his betrothed. And he went to her and wished 
to enter the chamber where Basilia and Proteus and 
Hyacinthus were performing their customary prayers and 

f. 46 b praises. He found the doors closed and he knocked at 
the door and wished to enter their presence. But the 
blessed Basilia sent to him (saying), If thou art come 
in order to see me, know that I have fully renounced thee. 
And I cannot do otherwise, because of my 'faith in our 
Lord Jesus the Christ. And when he had heard these 
things, he departed thence in great rage and vexation. 
And he sent to call the wives of the senators and some of 
the noble women of the city, and he persuaded them and 
sent them to her, that they should enter in and speak with 
her words of persuasion and advise her to become his wife. 


And when these noble women came to speak to her words 
of persuasion and reconciliation, so that she might become 
wife to her betrothed, the blessed Basilia replied [in] these 
words to the noble women, saying to them : There is a 
great difference between the ignorant and the wise people, 
for the ignorant do not care to receive good things, nor 
do they wish to decline the evil things, but wise men 
enquire about good things, and progress towards excellent 
things, and suddenly they completely renounce [them]. 
For if this appear to you to be good, that I should f. 47 a 
take for my betrothed a certain mortal and transient 
man, how much better will it appear to you, that I should 
take to myself the Bridegroom who dieth not, and re- 
maineth for ever. I rejoice and exult that in my soul 
I have decided this, that I should be betrothed alone to 
the Bridegroom who dieth not ; to Him who is our Lord 
Jesus the Christ ; and I have committed my soul with 
my body to Him: and thus I am eager to keep them 
spotless to Him. For I see that everything in this world 
is transient and perishing, and its joy lasts but a short 
time. Why then have we not hope to get possessions over 
which death has no power, and which last for ever ? For 
with which of mankind remain the blessings of this world 
and comfort him ? those which flourish a little while, and 
quickly hastily wither. For this reason ye who have wisdom f. 47 b 
and understanding see with the good eye of your minds 
and consider what hath been spoken to you by me. Be 
not ye now walking in the broad path of the good things 
of this world, . neither have ye any reliance on what is 
seen, to which the weakness and inexperience of men 
devotes itself. But [be ye] those who forsake human 
things and place their hope in God Almighty, He who 
sent His only One, our Lord Jesus the Christ, to us, that 
He might show us the way of truth in which we should 


walk confidently, and that through Him we might know 
the true faith and the perfect love which we have, in 
whom we are eager for this true faith, and we have great 
solicitude on this account that we may keep it spotless 
and blameless, by the strength and the help which is 
given to us by the Holy Spirit Let no man therefore 
advise us that I. should be neglectful of Him whom 
I confess, who is our Lord Jesus the Christ, Son of the 
f. 4 8 a living God, He who was born of Mary the holy Virgin 
whilst she remained in her uncontaminated virginity. 
For our Lord was born from her by His own will, as a 
man ; and was worshipped as a king by the shepherds and 
by the Magi. He was submissive as a disciple whilst He 
was a learned man and a teacher. He was tempted as a 
mortal, and He conquered death as an immortal. He was 
sold as a slave, and He came in glory as Lord and God. 
He was thought to be a prophet, whilst His Spirit spake 
by the prophets. And He was anointed as the Messiah, 
whilst He anointed kings and priests and prophets. He 
suffered and died as a man, and was raised and arose like 
God. But lest men should go on in the footsteps of the 
Jews, the crucifiers, whilst all His disciples were together 
gazing at Him, He was taken up from them to heaven and 
sitteth at the right hand of His Father. They are those 
who by their martyrdom have sealed the truth of this ; for 
after His ascension to His Father, He gave light and 
eyesight to the blind, He offered health to the pained and 
f. 48 b the sick. They scared away demons from men by their 
commandment and by their seals ; they cleansed the lepers; 
they raised the dead ; that by means of all these things 
which were done by their hands we may know how much 
love and care God has for us. And He wishes for us 
that we should be heirs of the kingdom of heaven. 
And when the blessed Basilia had spoken all these 


glorious things to the noble women who were listening 
to her, then suddenly by the love of the Christ their 
minds waxed fervent in spirit and they did not wish 
henceforth to go to their homes; nor were they minded 
to return an answer from themselves to Pompeius. But 
when Pompeius had taken the evidence of all these 
women of senatorial rank he went before the Emperors, 
and cast himself on his face before them, saying, Help 
us, O ye Emperors victorious and merciful to us your own 
people of Rome, be prompt and put away from this city 
the new gods which Eugenia has brought from Egypt. 
For there are found gods who prohibit men from begetting 
children, and if men are hindered from begetting children f. 49 a 
how will there be a renewal to Rome? And how will 
the army of the Romans be increased and grow? by 
means of which conflicts are carried on, and by which 
the victorious right hand of your Divinity subdues in 
battle the hosts of the foreign enemies which oppose 
it. If therefore conjugal intercourse [be lawful] to us, let 
thy majesty command "take thy betrothed bride," and 
from to-day and henceforth we shall be at peace, and 
the Christians may do as they please. 

And when Pompeius had said these things and more 
in his accusation, the Emperor Gallienus commanded 
[him] to take his betrothed Basilia, and that if she did 
not wish to be his wife, she should be slain with the sword. 
Then a decree went forth from the Emperor concerning 
Eugenia, that she should sacrifice to the gods, but that 
if she should contumaciously resist, and should not 
wish to sacrifice, she should be tormented with bitter 
punishments and with severe tortures, as her temerity 
deserved, and at the last she also should be condemned 
to death with the sword. Again a command went forth 
from the Emperor that if any man of the Christians should f. 49 b 


introduce another religion and should not wish to sacrifice 
to the gods, he should be deprived of dear life by means 
of various tortures. But the blessed Basilia refused every 
day to become the wife of Pompeius her betrothed. For 
many days she was tormented by persuasive words of 
many people. On one day she was harassed by women 
of senatorial rank and on another day by women who 
were neighbours and relatives, who advised her to obey 
the command of the Emperor, and to become the wife of 
her betrothed. 

And why is it necessary for us to say more? For by 
the wisdom and providence and grace of God which 
accompanied and assisted her, she overcame all these 
persuasions and blandishments. Because she was of the 
imperial family, and she could not be interrogated and 
judged publicly, the Emperor commanded that she should 
be beheaded with the sword in the interior of her house, 
and according to the commandment of the iniquitous 
Emperor her head was taken off with the sword 
f. 50 a But when the blessed Basilia had died in the confession 

of our Lord Jesus the Christ, a commandment went forth 
again concerning Proteus and Hyacinthus, that they also 
should sacrifice to the gods ; but if they should resist the 
commandment and should not wish to sacrifice, they also 
should die by the sword. But when the blessed ones did 
not consent at all to sacrifice according to the command- 
ment of the tyrant, severe tortures and bitter torments 
were applied to their bodies, [and] at last they were 
beheaded with the sword. And when these blessed ones 
had died blissfully in the confession of our Lord Jesus the 
Christ, the blessed Eugenia also was apprehended and 
brought before Anicetus, Eparch of the city. And he 
commanded that she should go immediately and sacrifice 
to the goddess Artemis. 



But when the blessed Eugenia came to that place and 
went into the temple she turned to the east and lifted up 
her hands to heaven and prayed for a long time. Now 
when she had finished her prayer, the image of Artemis 
fell and was broken, and it was ground so fine that even its 
powder could not be perceived. But those who did not f. sob 
understand the power of God, thought it the craft of magic ; 
and he commanded that they should tie a great stone on the 
neck of the blessed Eugenia and that she should be thrown 
into the river Tiber. But when they carried her and threw 
her in, immediately her bonds were broken, and the stone 
which they had hung round her neck fell ; but the blessed 
Eugenia was walking and going on the top of the water. 
Now when all the Christians saw this great sign that took 
place, they were filled with joy and exultation, and they 
praised God with a loud voice, saying, Great is the God 
of truth, who hath helped Eugenia His handmaiden, and 
hath not left her to perish, as He was with Peter in the sea, 
and did not leave him to sink. But when she went and 
came on the water, and reached the banks of the river, and 
emerged and stood on the firm land, the servants of the 
tyrant seized her immediately and conveyed her to prison. 
But the Eparch commanded that the bath which is called f. 51 a 
of Severianus should be heated strongly until its colour 
became like the colour of -iron which is heated in the fire ; 
and that she should be cast in there and perish and be con- 
sumed by the blast of the flame. And when the command 
of the tyrant was fulfilled, they brought the blessed one 
and threw her into that bath. But immediately when she 
entered into it, the flame of the fire was quenched before 
her, so that henceforth it could not be kindled through the 
great cold that was in it by the commandment of God. 

But when the handmaid of the Christ had conquered 
also this device of the erring ones, he commanded that she 

L. B. 


should go to the prison ; and there be cast into the dark 
cell, and that no bread and no water should be given to 
her. But when she entered into the house, that house 
was immediately filled with great light And the blessed 
Eugenia was in that prison twenty days, whilst that light 
shone there every day. And an angel of the Lord appeared 
to her, strengthening her and saying, Hail to thee, O 
f. 51 b handmaid of God, Eugenia, for our Lord Jesus the Christ, 
He whom thou hast loved with all thy heart, and hast 
served with all thy soul, hath sent me 1 to thee, and saith, Be 
courageous and be strong, Eugenia, for to-day thou shalt 
ascend to heaven, gaining the victory over the enemy. 

But on that day, which was the birth-day of the Christ, 
the Eparch commanded that one of the executioners should 
go, and there in the prison slay her with the sword. And 
when the blessed one had died 2 by means of the sword in 
the prison according to the command of the Eparch, the 
Christians heard (of it) and they came and took up the 
body of the holy Eugenia, and they carried it in triumph 
as something they had found, and laid it in a beautiful 
place which was not far from the city, on the road which is 
called the Latina. 

Now her mother Claudia was sitting at the grave and 
weeping. And the blessed Eugenia appeared to her and 
said to her, Rejoice and exult, my mother, for our Lord Jesus 
the Christ has exalted me to the rest and joy of the saints ; 
f. 52 a and has placed my father Philip in the host of just and 
righteous fathers. And as for thee, on the coming first day 
of the week 3 He will receive thee in peace. And command 
my brothers, Avita and Sergius, to keep the seal of the 
Christ which they have received, that by means of it they 
may be worthy to become partakers and heirs of the king- 
dom of heaven, with all the martyrs and confessors. But 

1 Cod. "us." 2 Literally "was crowned." 3 Or "Sunday." 


Claudia went up to her house, and informed her sons 
according as the blessed Eugenia had informed [her]. And 
on the first day of the week as they were consummating the 
glorious mysteries of the divinity, while she was standing 
in the church and praying, she committed her spirit to the 
Lord of all spirits, who is our Lord Jesus the Christ ; and 
her sons took her up, and laid her beside their sister, whilst 
they also excelled in good works and were pleasing to God, 
so that they converted many of the heathen from the 
impure sacrifices of idols ; and taught them to believe in 
our Saviour and Redeemer, in 1 our Lord Jesus the Christ. 
And they received with joyful delight those who went f. 52 b 
down to the baptismal font of holiness and were cleansed 
from their crimes and their sins, and gave them rest in 
their houses. But they did not cease to save every day 
the souls of men from the captivity of the dragon, the 
accursed calumniator, and they brought them near to the 
Christ their Lord. But they also were counted worthy 
to imitate the excellent deeds of their father, and of 
their sister; and to inherit the portion and the bliss of 
the saints together with them. For they pleased the Christ 
in their life; and they entered and mingled with the 
glorious hosts of the just and the righteous. May we also 
be worthy to be heirs with them of the kingdom of heaven, 
by the grace and tender mercy of our Lord Jesus the 
Christ ! with whom also to the Father be glory and honour 
and praise and exaltation with the Holy Spirit now and in 
all time for ever and ever. Amen. 

Here endeth the testimony of the blessed Eugenia, and 
of all the holy martyrs who were martyred with her : Glory 
to the Hidden One who was made manifest in our body ; 
and we have seen Him who is invisible, visible in our 
body 2 . 

1 Literally u on." 2 Or " in our visible body." 

f. 53 a THE story of the excellent life of Pelagia the harlot, 

who was of the city of Antioch in Syria. 


f. 7 a AGAIN the story of the Blessed Mary, who was called 


Glory and praise and adoration to God the Lover of 
men. He whose door is opened at all times to the re- 
pentant ; and to him who does not enter the hindrance is 
in himself. For God doth not reject men, as Peter also, 
the chief of the Apostles, saith: Of a truth I have perceived 
that God is no respecter of persons, but in all nations he 
who feareth Him and worketh righteousness, is accepted of 
Him. And Ezekiel the prophet : God saith : I desire not 
the death of the wicked, saith the Lord of lords, but that 
he should turn from his wicked way and live. And the 
chosen Apostle Paul makes known concerning our Lord, 
that He wishes every man to repent, saying in the Epistle 
to Timothy, I entreat thee, therefore, that before all things 

f. 70 b thou shouldest offer prayer and supplication and thanks- 
giving to God on behalf of all men, on behalf of kings and 
great men that we may lead a peaceable and quiet life in 
all godliness and purity. For this is good and acceptable 
before God our Saviour, He who will have all men to be 
saved, and turn to the knowledge of the truth. For there 
is one Mediator between God and man, our Lord Jesus the 
Christ, He who gave Himself a ransom on behalf of all 



men. For the door of the house of God is open, as we 
have said ; and every one who will worketh in the vineyard 
of righteousness; not only men but also women, must, 
[in spite of] the weakness which attaches to them, enter 
into the kingdom. Women have been celebrated in all 
generations, and they have even surpassed men. A few 
in number will be mentioned by us in this treatise. 

Miriam the sister of Moses was called a prophetess. 
She led Israel of old, and by her hands God wrought 
redemption fgr Israel. And again by the hand of Judith 
He delivered them. And Hanna was called the prophetess 
because of the many years that she sat in the temple of the 
Lord in holiness until she became worthy to carry the Lord 
on her arm. By holiness man comes near to God, as the 
Apostle says, Follow after holiness, without which no man f. 71 ; 
shall see God. By this many women have prospered. 
One of them was the blessed Mary, who is the subject 
of the story which we commence. And behold, we begin 
to narrate the story of her excellent life and her power of 
endurance, this wonderful blessed one, worthy of praise. 

There was a certain man in Bithynia, and he had a 
wife who bore him one only daughter ; and he called her 
name Mary. Now after the departure of her mother from 
this world, her father reared her with sedulous teaching, 
and in honourable life. But when she arrived at full 
stature, he said to her, My daughter, behold everything 
that I have is given into thy hands. For I am going away 
to care about my soul. But when the girl heard this from 
her father, she answered and said to him, Father, thou art 
seeking to save thy soul ; but to destroy my soul. Dost 
thou not know that it was said by our Lord, " I lay down 
my life for my sheep " ? And again, He said that He who 
" redeems the soul is as He who created it." But when her . 
father had heard these things from her, his love was 

38 MARY. 

aroused by her words, the more when he saw her thus 
weeping and mourning. He spake thus to her, My 
daughter, what is there that I can do to thee? Thou art a 

f. 71 b woman. I am thinking of entering a monastery that I may 
be removed from the snares of this world, and thou, how 
canst thou be with us ? for the devil will contend with thee 

more readily, and with the servants of God. 

But when the girl heard [this], she returned him an answer, 
and said, No, sir, I shall not enter the monastery thus, as 
thou hast said, but I will shave the hair from fc my head and 
I will clothe myself in the dress of a man, and then I will 
enter the monastery with thee. Now when he was inclined 
to be persuaded by the words of his daughter, he distributed 
and gave everything he possessed to the poor, and he shaved 
off the hair from the head of his daughter and clothed her, 
as she had said, in the dress of a man, and changed her name, 
and called her Marinus 1 . Now when all these things were 
effectually accomplished, he was continually warning her, 
[and] saying to her : Look, my daughter, how thou keepest 
thyself. Like straw in the midst of fire, thus art thou ready 
to conduct thyself in the midst of the brethren, and the 
rather that no woman has ever entered the monastery. 
Keep thyself therefore spotless to the Christ, that we may 
finish our confession to Him. When he had said these 
things to her, he led her and entered into the convent. 
Day by day, as it may be said, this wonderful girl gained 
the admiration of all, whilst she was perfect in all virtues, 
that is to say, in obedience, humility, and great devotion, 
with the others. She spent a little while in the monastery. 

f. 72 a The brethren imagined that she was a eunuch because she 
had no beard, and also because of the softness of her 
voice ; but others thought that she had hurt herself by too 
great toils in devotion. 

1 Cod. "Marina." 

MARY. 39 

Now it happened that her father departed from the 
world, and she increased the more her deeds, and her 
obedience and her piety ; so that she even received gifts of 
grace from God, against demons and against various suffer- 
ings. And when she placed her hand on the sick, she 
obtained without delay healing for them by the help of 
God. Now there were in that convent brethren, holy men, 
forty in number. And every month four of the brethren 
were sent on account of the business of the monastery, 
because there were other monasteries as well as their 
own, so that they were continually going out visiting and 
providing [for it]. Now it happened that there was a 
certain inn about the middle of the road on which they 
usually travelled, where those who were sent on the 
business of the convent entered and lodged. And it was 
not easy to travel over all the road in a single day. 
But the innkeeper took them in with great solicitude, 
serving them well, and gave them a place of refuge 
apart in the garden. Now on a certain day the Abbot 
called Marinus 1 and said to him : My brother, I am con- 
vinced of the sincerity of thy life, and I know that thou art 
perfect in it all; namely, in humility and in the sedulous- f. 72 b 
ness of thine obedience. Turn therefore and go forth on 
the visiting of the monastery, for even the brethren are 
perplexed that thou art never away on its business. 
When thou shalt do this, and shalt be obedient, and 
go out, thou shalt receive a yet greater reward from 
God. And when the humble one heard these things 
from the Abbot, he immediately fell at his feet, saying to 
him : Pray for me, father, and I will go altogether as thou 
hast commanded me. Now when the event occurred, and 
Marinus 1 went forth with three brethren, for the visiting 
of the monastery, they lodged in the above-mentioned inn. 

1 Cod. "Marina." 

40 MARY. 

And while they were there it happened that a certain 
soldier seduced the daughter of the innkeeper, so that 
she became pregnant by him. And the soldier who did 
this vile deed, said to the daughter of the innkeeper, 
being instigated by the devil: If this should become 
known to thy father, say to him: "That young monk 
slept with me." But day by day she grew larger, so 
that her father became aware that a vile thing, had hap- 
pened to his child. And when he knew it, he demanded 
it from her hands, and said : How hath this evil happened 
to thee? Then she threw the blame on Marinus 1 , saying: 
The monk whom ye praise for being holy did this to 
me, and by him I am with child. Then her father went 
to the monastery, and bursting in, he said: Where is 
f. 73 a the deceitful Christian about whom ye say that he is 
holy? But when one of the superintendents received 
him, according to their custom, with a greeting, saying to 
him: Thou hast done well in coming, brother. What 
is the matter with thee, and why art thou so flurried? 
Tell us what has happened to thee, he called out the 
more, saying, The hour was an evil one in which I 
made your acquaintance. But when these things were 
made known to the Abbot, he inquired and was eager 
to calm the tumult in the heart of the innkeeper, and 
to learn exactly what the kind of accusation was. But 
he raised his voice all the more, saying, May I never 
again see a monk on the earth! and many things like 
these, he said. And when the Abbot had interrogated 
him again, to learn from him what was the reason of 
the commotion in the business, he said to him, Tell 
me, brother, what is the reason of thine accusation? so 
that I also may apologize to thee. Then that innkeeper 
.answered and said : What thou dost request me. I shall tell 
1 Cod. "Marina." 

MARY. 41 

thee. I had one only daughter, with whom I expected 
my old age to repose, and behold, see what Marinus 1 has 
done to me, he of whom ye say that he is blessed. He 
seduced her and behold ! she is with child. But when the 
Abbot had heard these things from him, he was astonished, 
and said to him, What can I do to thee, my brother, since 
he is not here, he is away visiting, but nevertheless he is 
disgraced, so that at his arrival there is nothing for me to 
do, but to chase him from the monastery. f. 73 b 

Now when Marinus 1 came to the monastery with the 
three brethren who were with him, the Abbot said to him : 
Tell me, my brother, are these thy manners? is this thy 
piety ? is this thy humility ? Behold, thou hast disgraced 
my monastery. This innkeeper came and spoke thus 
against thee. When ye did lodge in his inn, thou didst 
seduce his daughter, and, lo! her father has made us a 
spectacle to the world. Tell me, is this the way in which 
thou didst confess the Christ ? is this thy profession ? hast 
thou shown this way of life to thy brethren ? is this virtue ? 

Now when Marinus heard these things, he threw him- 
self on his face on the ground, crying out with bitter 
weeping, and with choking tears, and he said to the Abbot, 
Forgive me, father, for the sake of our Lord, because I 
have transgressed as a human being. But the Abbot, being 
angry with him, turned him out of the monastery, saying : 
Enter not our monastery again. Then he went out of the 
monastery and sat down outside, enduring the cold and the 
heat. And those who were going in and out of the monas- 
tery inquired of him, saying : For what cause dost thou sit 
outside the door of the monastery? and he answered, Be- 
cause of my sin, for I have committed fornication, and I am 
driven away from the monastery. But when the time was 
fulfilled, and the day arrived that the daughter of the 

1 Cod. "Marina." 
L. E. F 

42 MARY. 

innkeeper should give birth, she bare a male child. And the 
father of the girl took it up and brought it to the monastery : 

f. 74 a and when he found Marinus 1 sitting outside the door of the 
monastery, he threw down the baby before him, saying: 
Take thy son, whom thou hast wickedly begotten; and 
he left it with him, and went away. Then Marinus 1 took 
up the baby and lamented, saying: Lord my God! if I 
am requited according to my sins, for what reason should 
this poor baby die here with me? And Marinus 1 , being 
disturbed in this way, began to bring milk from the shep- 
herds to the baby, that he might rear the boy as its father. 
But it was not enough for Marinus 1 that he had borne this 
accusation, but the boy stained his clothes with much weep- 
ing. And the blessed Marinus 1 endured this pain and this 
grief for three years. Now at the end of three years the 
brethren took pity on Marinus 1 , and said to the Abbot, All 
this indignity has been enough for him, for he confesses 
his sin before all men. And, moreover, after sitting there 
for three years, he offers repentance to God, as one who 
hath been led astray by the devil. And when the Abbot 
was not persuaded to receive him, all the brethren spake, 
saying: Unless thou wilt receive him, we also will go 
forth from the monastery. For we cannot look at him any 

f. 74 b longer, lying destitute at the door of the monastery, and 
not take pity on him. We suffer from his distress, and 
if we did not, how could we implore God about our sins ? 
For we see that, behold, during three years he has been 
outside the door of the monastery, and he is afflicted and 
in. great want. But when the Abbot heard these things 
he said to them : Henceforth because of your love I will 
receive him. And the Abbot called Marinus 1 and said unto 
him, Thou art not worthy that thou shouldst ever enter 
this monastery because thou hast spoiled the rule of the 
1 Cod, "Marina." 

MARY. 43 

monastery by the sin which thou hast committed. But, 
nevertheless, on account of the love of the brethren, I will 
receive thee. Thou shalt be the last of them all by the 
rule of the monastery. But Marinus 1 threw himself on the 
ground and said : Even that, my lord, will be a great thing 
for me, that thou hast deemed me worthy to enter within 
the door of the monastery. Whereas I transgressed and 
committed fornication, so that, at least thus while I serve 
the holy fathers, I may become worthy by means of their 
prayers of a little forgiveness for what I have done an^iss. 
And after these things the Abbot set him to the ignominious 
tasks of the monastery. And he fulfilled them with great 
assiduity. But he called to the boy and he followed him 
and" he wept and cried, Father, father; with the rest of 

the things that children have to ask for their food. 

But the alms 2 which Marinus 1 acquired were not sufficient 
to feed the boy ; he was in great distress because of his 
nourishment. And when the boy before him attained to f. 75 a 
full stature, he conducted himself in the monastery with 
the assiduity of a high order of excellence. For no man 
remains in the initial childhood (of mind) in which he is 
born. But as he is taught he grows up, and this boy 
became worthy of the monastic garb. But after a little 
while, on a certain day the Abbot asked the brethren, 
saying, Where is Marinus 1 , for lo ! I have not seen him for 
three days at the offering? for he was always found there 
before every one else at the service. Go, therefore, into his 
cell, and see if perchance he is in some sickness. And 
when the brethren entered they found him dead. And 
they told it to .the Abbot, saying : Poor Marinus 1 is asleep. 
Then he said: How is that? How did his poor soul de- 
part ? What excuse did he make before God ? And when 
the Abbot had said these things, he commanded that they 

1 Cod. "Marina." 2 Literally "consolations." 

44 MARY. 

should dress him. But when the brethren went to dress 
him, according to the commandment of the Abbot, they 
found that he was a woman. And when they saw her, 
their limbs became weak, and the light of their eyes was 
troubled. And immediately when they had rested a little, 
they began crying, Kyrie eleison. But the Abbot, when 
he heard the voice of the cry, inquired in order that he 
might learn what was the reason of their cry. And they 
said to him, Brother Marinus 1 is a woman. And when he 
f. 75 b came and saw her, he was seized with great amazement also, 
at what endurance she had possessed ; and he fell on his 
face on the ground, and cried with choking tears, saying, 
Forgive me : I have sinned against God and against thee. 
I will die here before thy holy feet, until I receive forgive- 
ness for my sins which I committed against thee. And he 
said other things like these, and more than these, lying 
on his face at the feet of the saint, with sobs and with 
weeping for three days. But at the end of three days, 
a voice came to him, saying: If thou hadst done 
these things intentionally to me this sin would not have 
been forgiven thee. But, nevertheless, the sin is forgiven 
thee, because thou didst commit it unwittingly. Then 
when the Abbot rose from before the feet of the saint, 
he sent for the innkeeper and they brought him. And 
when he came the Abbot said to him: Behold, poor 
Marinus 1 is dead. But when the innkeeper heard it, he 
answered and said : God forgive him ! for he disgraced 
my house. Then the Abbot said to him: May God 
forgive thee, because thou hast troubled me also and 
my monastery. Do not remain henceforward in sin, but 
repent For thou hast sinned before God, and hast also 
made me to sin. Thou didst incite me with thy words, 
and I sinned by thy fault For although Marina's know- 
1 Cod. "Marina." 

MARY. 45 

ledge and her dress were those of a man, by nature she 76 a 
was a woman. But when the innkeeper heard that she 
was a woman, he was amazed and was seized with astonish- 
ment at these things which were said, and he still remained 
incredulous. Then the Abbot led him by the hand and 
showed him his unbelief, what he had said to him. Then 
the innkeeper also began with many tears to confess his 
sin, which he had committed unwittingly. And whilst this 
commotion was going on they dressed her sacred body, and 
laid her in an honourable place with a beautiful service, and 
with much glory inside of the monastery, and they praised 
God who had endowed her with such endurance. But at 
the conclusion of all these things came the daughter of the 
innkeeper, worried by a demon ; and she confessed all the 
truth, saying, It was a soldier who committed this im- 
purity with me and made me pregnant, and advised me to 
wrong the handmaid of God, and the monastery. And 
whilst that girl said these things she was cured without 
delay by the grave of the holy Mary. And they all 
praised our Lord for the occurrence and for the sign 
that had happened, He who hath given such endurance to 
those who love Him, that she persevered thus until death 
and never revealed herself to any one as a woman. May 
we also, my beloved ones, emulate in perseverance and in 
endurance the manly woman so that our Lord may give f. 76 b 
us grace and mercy with her and the portion of the 
saints in the fearful day of judgment, by our Lord Jesus 
the Christ, to whom with His Father and His living and 
Holy Spirit be glory and honour and adoration for ever 
and ever. 

Here endeth the story of the blessed Mary : Marinus. 


AGAIN, the story of Euphrosyne of Alexandria. 

Now there was once upon a time in the great city of 
Alexandria a certain honourable man whose name was 
Paphnutius, and he was assiduous in fulfilling the command- 
ments of God, And he took a wife who was modest and 
worthy of his choice, and she was of a well-known and 
honourable family, and she was barren and she did not bear 
[a child] ; and her husband was in much concern and in sore 
vexation, because he had no son to whom he might leave his 
wealth, after his departure from the world, to dispose of his 
wealth properly to the needy. But when his wife saw her 
husband was vexed, she rested neither by night nor by day, 
being continually in the churches imploring with fasting 
and with prayer that God would grant her a child. She 
gave great wealth to the poor and to the sick, and distributed 
f. 77 a it to holy dwellings and to monasteries. And in that city 
her husband also, when he passed by the churches and the 
monasteries, groaned and desired that he might meet with 
a monastery and might find a man who was worthy before 
God who was likely by means of his prayer to persuade 
God to grant him the desire of his heart. And at last 
he went to a certain monastery in which there was a 
famous Abbot A certain great God-fearing monk was 
in it. And when he entered that monastery. he gave 
him a benediction and he sat in an expansive and 
protracted conversation with the Abbot and with the 
brethren who were sitting with him. Then after a little 
while he revealed his secret to the Abbot, and he was 


inclined to his request that they should persuade God 
on his behalf, to jfrant them fruit of their loins. And 
God took pity on the request of the two and granted 
them one daughter. 

Now when Paphnutius saw the good government and 
modest life of the Abbot, he did not go away from that 
convent On this account also he brought his wife many 
times there to be blessed by the Abbot and by the brethren 
who were with him. When the girl was weaned and was 
about six years old they baptized her and called her name 
Euphrosyne. But her parents rejoiced greatly that she was 
beloved by God and was beautiful of countenance and was 
very lovely in her aspect. 

Now when she was thirteen years old her mother de- 
parted from the world, and her father continued to educate 
and teach her in the Scriptures and the wisdom of God. 77 b 
But the girl was worthy to be on the right side by nature 
and as the fruit of prayer. And she loved instruction to 
such a degree that her father admired her because of it 
And her name was spread abroad in all the city because 
of her wisdom and love of learning. But yet more because 
of the great development of her stature, and the splendid 
beauty of her countenance. And many great and powerful 
men were attracted to love her, to betroth her as a bride 
for their sons, and many came to her father in order 
to get an advantage over each other in betrothing her 
to their sons. But he said to them, Let the will of 
God be done. Now one of the great men who was 
more excellent than them all in power, and in might, 
called her father and spoke with him about the matter; 
and [her father] was persuaded and betrothed her to his 
son, and he gave her a betrothal present But a short 
time afterwards, when she was about eighteen years of age, 
her father led her and conducted her to that monastery, 


and carried with her all good things to do honour to the 
Abbot and to the brethren who wer with him. And 
whilst he was talking with them he said to the Abbot: 
Behold, I have brought to you the fruit of your prayers 
about which you prayed. If God wills, I wish to give her 
to a husband. And the Abbot commanded that they 
should lodge him in the hospice for strangers of the 

f. 78 a convent, whilst he talked with the girl and blessed her 
and prayed for hen And he talked of many things with 
her about purity and virginity and the fear of God. And 
she progressed very greatly in her learning. When she 
had been in the convent three days she listened to the 
singing of their daily service, and she saw the beautiful 
assiduity of their conduct and she wondered at their 
virtues, saying. Blessed are these elect ones because that 
although they are in the world they have the likeness of 
angels; and after their departure from this world they 
are worthy of eternal life. And she began to repent in 
her heart, because of the fear of God. 

But after three days Paphnutius said to the Abbot: 
Command, spiritual father, concerning thy handmaiden 
that she may come to thee, and grant her the prayer of 
thy mouth. For it is our desire to go to the city. But 
when she came into the Abbot's presence, Euphrosyne 
threw herself down before his feet, saying to him, I 
beseech thee, father, pray for me that God may redeem 
my soul. And the Abbot raised his hands and said: 
God who knowest everything when it has not yet been, 
do Thou lead this Thy handmaid to grace, that she may 
please Thee and may be worthy to find a portion and an 
inheritance with those who please Thee. And they took 
leave of the Abbot and went away to their city. But 
her father, when he saw a hermit in the city, received 

f. 78 b him and brought him into his house, and persuaded him 


to pray for him and his daughter. But a certain day 
came when there was to be the commemoration of the 
monastery. And the Abbot sent a certain brother to 
bring Paphnutius to the commemoration and the vigil of 
the monastery. And when this brother went to his house 
and asked about him the young men said that he had 
gone out But when Euphrosyne learnt about the 
arrival of that recluse she called him and recognized 
him, saying to him, "About how many brethren are 
there in that monastery?'* And he said to her, "Three 
hundred and fifty-two. " And she said to him, " Whosoever 
therefore wishes to go and dwell there, do they receive 
him, O father? And do you all therefore sing in one 
church? And do you keep one fast?" The recluse said 
to her, " The music is sung by all of us in a congregation, 
but each [keeps] the fast as he wishes and can endure/' 

Then when she had inquired about all the affairs of 
the monastery she said to the recluse, "I could have wished 
that I were able to go out from this vain world, but I fear 
that my father wishes to give me to husbands because of 
the vain wealth of this world." The recluse said to her, 
"Nay, my daughter, let not a man dishonour thy body, 
and do not surrender such beauty to shameful passion, 
but be thou altogether in thy purity a bride to the Christ, 
who is able to give thee instead of these transitory f. 79 a. 
things the kingdom of heaven. Therefore shave thy head 
in secret and go to the monastery and thou shalt be saved." 
Now when she had heard these words she said to the 
hermit, "And who will shave me ? for I do not wish to be 
haved by laymen, for they do not keep secrets." The 
hermit said to her, " Behold I am about to take thy father 
to the monastery, and he will be there three or four days. 
Thou therefore send and call one of the recluses and 
thus as thou desirest he will arrange for thy comfort." But 
L. E. G 


whilst Euphrosyne and the hermit were talking her father 
also arrived. And when Paphnutius saw the hermit, he 
recognized him and asked him, " What is the reason of the 
work of God's love in thee towards us?" The recluse 
said to him, " It is the vigil and commemoration of the 
monastery, and our father the Abbot sent us that thou 
shouldest come and enjoy his prayers with us." And when 
Paphnutius, the father of Euphrosyne, had heard it he 
rejoiced greatly. And he carried with him what was 
necessary for many days, and put it into a ship whilst he 
went to the monastery. And when Paphnutius arrived at 
that monastery he was blessed by the Abbot And while 
Paphnutius was in the monastery Euphrosyne sent one of 
her faithful servants to the church where the recluses were 
assembled, the one which was called of Theodosius, and 
f. 79 b said to that young man, " Look for the first hermit who 
meets thee in the church, take him and bring him to this 
place." And when the young man had gone as he was 
bidden, as if it were by the doing of God a very old 
man met him who was from Scete. Now when the boy 
who was sent by Euphrosyne saw the old man, he took 
him and brought him to her. And when the girl saw him 
she said to him, "Pray for me, father." And when he had 
prayed for her he sat down. But she said to the old man, 
" Father, I have a father and he is a servant of God, and 
he has great riches, and he had a wife and from her he 
begat me; and he wishes because of his riches to marry 
me in this sinful world. And I do not at all wish to be 
contaminated by the pollution of this world, and on the 
other hand I fear to rebel against my own father: and what 
I shall do I know not For all this night I have been 
awake on account of this ; whilst I implored of God that 
He would make known to me what is profitable for my 
poor soul. And after the light had dawned it was shown to 


me that I should send to the church, and should fetch the 
first hermit who met me. And behold, as if by the 
guidance of God, thou hast been sent to us, and now I 
would persuade thee, father, teach me what will help me." 

But when the old man had heard these words from her 
he began to talk with her, saying, "And what dost thou 
wish my daughter ? When our Lord saith that whosoever f. 80 a 
hateth not his father and his mother and his brethren 
and his sisters, and even his own life, he cannot be my 
disciple. But what business have I to say more than this 
to thee ? If therefore thou art able to endure the tempta- 
tions of the adversaries, leave everything and flee; for to 
the wealth of thy parents many heirs will be found, Lo ! 
there are churches, and there are asylums for the poor, and 
there are prisons, and there are hospices, and there are 
monasteries, and there are orphans, and there are widows, 
and there are lepers, and there are sick people, and there 
are prisoners; let thy father leave them to whatsoever 
place it may please him. But only do not thou lose thy 

Euphrosyne said to him: "I hope in God by your 
prayers, that I am eager to save my soul.'* The old 
man said to her, "My daughter, if thou wilt do this, 
do it quickly, without delay, lest thou be prevented and 
prohibited through negligence from this beautiful pur- 
pose of thy heart." The girl said to the old man, "I 
brought thee here, my lord, for this purpose, that thou 
mightest accomplish^ the desire of my soul." And forth- 
with the old man rose up, engaged in prayer, shaved 
her, dressed her in a robe and prayed for her, saying, 
"May God who hath redeemed ail the saints keep thee 
from evil." And when the old man had said these things 
he departed from her. Then Euphrosyne considered and 
said, rt If it be that I am to go to a convent of women 


f. 80 b my father will never cease to seek till he has found me, and 
he will snatch me away by force from the convent on 
account of my betrothed. But I will put myself into a 
domicile of men, in a place where no one will suspect 
me." And she took off women's clothes and wrapped 
herself in the garb of a man. And when it was evening 
she went forth from her house, taking with her five hundred 

And in the morning her father arrived and came to his 
city, and as if it were by the direction of God he went at 
. once to the church. And Euphrosyne his daughter went 
to the very monastery which her father loved. And 
she talked with the porter and said to him, " Brother, if it 
please thee, go and say to the Abbot that a certain 
eunuch from the palace is at the door outside and desires 
to speak to thee." And when the porter had entered and 
related her business to the Abbot, he commanded him to 
enter. And when he had entered, he threw himself down 
and did penance. And after a prayer had been offered 
they sat down. The Abbot said to her: "Why has the 
love of God that is in thee made thee trouble thyself about 
us?" She replied to him, "Father, I am from the palace, 
and I had a love for the garb of a recluse : and I knew our 
city does not know very well that a monastic community 
dwells in it And I heard about thy Holiness and about 
this monastery, and I am come to be with you if it please 
you to accept me. I have great wealth, and if we are seated 
on our seats in the quiet of this dwelling I will bring it to 

f. 81 a the door." The Abbot said to him : " Thou hast done well 
in coming, my son : behold the monastery is before thee, if 
it seem good in thine eyes, abide with us." And again the 
Abbot said to him : - " My son, what is thy name ? * 
"Esmeraldus," he replied. The Abbot said, "Since thou 
art so young, and thou canst not dwell alone, it is expedient 


for thee to have an older man with thee, that he may 
teach thee the rule of monasticism." " I will do as thou 
desirest," said the blessed one. And Esmeraldus brought 
out the five hundred dinars and gave them into the hands 
of the Abbot, saying, " Take these, father, and do as thou 
wilt with* them, and if I know that I can live quietly 
here, I will bring also the remainder." 

Then the Abbot called a certain brother whose name 
was Agapius, a sensible man, and delivered over Esmeraldus 
to him, saying, " Let this man be henceforth thy son and 
thy disciple." And he bent the knee and prayed, and 
Agapius took him away to his cell because his face was 
covered with beauty like an emerald. And when he came 
into the refectory Satan made many to stumble at his 
beauty, so that they complained against the Abbot, that 
he had received such a fair and beautiful face into the 
monastery, and when the Abbot learnt it he called for 
Esmeraldus and said to him, "The fair beauty of thy 
face has occasioned many falls to those who are not well- 
established I therefore desire thee to dwell in a separate 
cell at some distance from [the monastery] and thou mayest f. 81 b 
be quiet and sing hymns there and eat; and do not let thy- 
self be seen by the brethren." And he ordered Agapius to 
prepare a separate cell so that Esmeraldus might dwell m it 

Then Agapius did all that he was commanded to do by 
the Abbot, and he conducted Esmeraldus and led him into 
a cell. And whilst he was occupying this cell he was very 
zealous and constant in fasting, vigil, and prayer, and in 
sleeping on the ground, and in the reading of the sacred 
Scriptures ; and was praising God by night and by day, so 
that Agapius saw the assiduity of Esmeraldus and the 
great excess of his humility, and was amazed, He related 
to the brethren all about his great zeal, and by this they 
made progress and were instructed. 


But the father of Euphrosyne arrived at dinner-time 
and went into his house. And when he did not find his 
daughter he asked his servants, "Where is Euphrosyne, my 
daughter?" And they said to him, "We saw her last 
evening, but since the morning we have not seen her." 
Then her father thought that perhaps her betrothed had 
come and taken her away ; and he sent to inquire about 
this matter. But when the father of her betrothed and his 
son heard this they were greatly disquieted, and they arose 
and came in haste to the house of Paphnutius, and found 
that he had flung himself on the earth and was in tears. 
And he said, "Perhaps some man has deceived her and 
taken her away and fled with her/' He sent horsemen 
instantly through all Egypt and to the provinces, and he 
sent ships and skiffs on the sea in quest of her, and the 
nunneries and the churches and the caves and the deserts 
f. 82 a were searched ; and they inquired about her of their friends 
and neighbours, and they searched for her over all the 
city. But no searcher found her. 

Now when they had sought for her in every place and 
had not found her, they wailed and wept for her as for one 
dead. The father-in-law wept for his daughter-in-law, the 
father wailed for his daughter, saying, "Woe is me, my 
fondly loved daughter! Woe is me for the light of my 
eyes! Woe is me for the consolation and solace of my 
soul ! Who is he that hath robbed me of my treasure ? 
Who is he that hath snatched away my nestling ? Who 
is he that hath scattered my wealth? Who is he that 
hath carried away the beauty and ornament of my house ? 
Who is he that hath entered and robbed me of my own 
hope ? Which wolf has snatched away my sheep? What 
place hides the beauty that is like the sun ? What abyss 
holds captive from me that royal seal ? For she was to be 
the raiser up of my race. She was the staff of my old age. 


She was my rest in labours. She was the repose of my 
troubles. She it was who lightened my miseries. O earth ! 
cover not the blood of my darling till I learn who has 
turned my joy into sorrow." 

Now when Paphnutius' friends and neighbours heard 
how he wept for his daughter, and wailed for her in such 
words, they also wailed and wept for her with a loud 
voice, until the whole city was stirred by the noise of their 
mourning and wept for the sudden loss of the young 

Now when Paphnutius had come to acquiesce in the 
inexorable nature of his sorrow, he went to the monastery, f. 82 b 
and threw himself at the feet of the Abbot, saying to him, 
" I beg of thee, my father, do not neglect prayer to God 
until they find the effects of thy prayers. Thy hand- 
maiden, my daughter, has been abducted." And when 
the Abbot heard this he was greatly troubled, and he 
commanded them to beat the wooden gongs, so that the 
brethren might be assembled. And when they had come 
together, he said to them, " Brethren, make [a confession 
of] sins, and appoint a sabbath, and fast every two days, 
and strive with God, and beg Him to reveal and disclose to 
us where is the daughter of Paphnutius/' But when they 
had fasted all the sabbath, God did not reveal the matter to 
any one of them, because her own prayers overcame the 
prayers and vigils of all the brethren. For she had 
striven with God, and had persuaded Him not to dis- 
close anything concerning her in her lifetime. For all the 
brethren were sorrowing because God had not revealed this 
matter to them. But the Abbot encouraged Paphnutius, 
saying, "Do not afflict thyself, nor grieve, but thank God, 
and whatever He wills He will make known to thee con- 
cerning her, for thou knowest that she has not devoted 
herself to any evil, but to good ; and for this reason God 


does not wish to make known what concerns her to any of 
us. If she had been about any evil, God would not have 
been neglectful of thy labours, and of those of the holy men 
who are amongst us/' And when Paphnutius heard this he 
was a little quieter in his affliction and went away to his 

f. 83 a city praying that God would make him worthy of the 
good and beautiful home 1 . Then after a little while he 
again went to that monastery and paid his respects to the 
brethren and returned to his city. On one of the days 
when he went to the monastery the Abbot said to him, " I 
want you to talk with a certain good brother from the 
palace of the Emperor Theodosius." Paphnutius replied, 
"Father, I am content," and the Abbot sent and called 
Agapius his chief [monk] and said to him, " Take my lord 
Paphnutius "and lead him to brother Esmeraldus, so that 
he may profit by him. And he took him and conducted 
him thither." But when Euphrosyne saw her father she 
was all bathed in her tears. But her father imagined that 
penitence was the reason of her tears. He did not 
recognize her in the very least, for her beauty was withered 
up by her much fasting, and her vigils, and by her sleeping 
on the ground, for she had covered up her face in a rug, 
so that her father might not recognize her by some tokens. 
When they had engaged in prayer he sat down and she 
began to talk to him about mercy and righteousness and 
love and chastity, and about the freedom of souls, and 
while Esmeraldus was speaking the heart of Paphnutius 
was moved, and he was full of tears. And he was 
impelled by his love to embrace her. But he was ashamed 

f. 83 b of it, and restrained himself. So while they were speaking 
to each other about things profitable to the soul, Paphnutius 
went away from Esmeraldus, and going to the Abbot, said 
to him, " Glory be to God, father, for how much have 

1 Or "conduct." 


I profited by this man. God [only] knows how my soul 
has been captivated by his love, as if he had been 
Euphrosyne my daughter." And he took leave of the 
brethren and returned to his city. 

Now when Esmeraldus had been in the monastery for 
thirty-eight years, he fell ill of the sore sickness which was 
the cause of [his] death. And during his sickness Paphnutius 
also arrived and came to that monastery. And after he had 
talked as usual with the Abbot, he said to him, " My lord, 
I wish to see Esmeraldus, whom my soul loves fondly." 
And the Abbot sent and called for Agapius and said to 
him, "Take my lord Paphnutius and conduct him to our 
brother Esmeraldus, for it seems to me that he will not 
again see him in life." And when Paphnutius went he fell 
on the rug on which Esmeraldus was lying and kissed 
his feet, saying, " Pray for me, brother, that God may give 
me consolation concerning my daughter, for my soul is not 
yet healed of its grief (about her)." Esmeraldus said to him, 
" Do not grieve, and do not weep, for whilst thou art here 
God will disclose and make known to thee [something] con- 
cerning thy daughter. But I advise thee to stay here for f. 84 a 
three days, and not to go far away from me." He said to 
him, <c Thou hast commanded and I will certainly do it I 
will not go away, I will not leave thee for these three days." 

Now when the third day arrived, and he knew 
therefore that he was departing to his Lord, she said to 
Paphnutius, " My father, since God has guided me according 
to His will, and has fulfilled the desire of my soul, I wish 
that from to-day thou mayest be quit of grief in the matter 
of Euphrosyne thy daughter. For I am that poor and 
miserable one, and behold ! thou hast seen me, and thou 
art at rest, and thy wish is fulfilled. But for the sake of 
our Lord let no one know this. Moreover, do not allow 
any one else to shroud my body, but thou only, do thou 

L. E. H 


shroud me. And because I confessed to the Abbot, my 
father, when I came here and took upon myself this gentle 
yoke, that I possess great wealth, and that being permitted 
to sojourn here, I should leave it to those in this monas- 
tery, leave it to them, father. And thou also, my father 
Paphnutius, knowest this place where we live in the fear 
of God, and I beg of thee, my father, pray for me, a 
miserable creature." 

And when the blessed, holy Euphrosyne had said this 
she yielded up her spirit to God. Now when her father 
Paphnutius had heard it, he wondered and fainted, and fell 
to the ground, and was as one dead. And Agapius, the 
master of Esmeraldus, entered and saw that he was already 
dead, and he sprinkled water on his face, saying to him, 
f. 84 b "What is the matter with thee, my lord Paphnutius ?" But 
he said to him, " Leave me to die here, for I have seen 
glorious things to-day ." And when Agapius had raised him 
up, he threw himself again on his face, and kissed her, and 
drenched her with his tears, crying out and saying, " Woe 
is me, my beloved daughter ! Woe is me for the light of 
my eyes! Wherefore didst thou not disclose this to me 
aforetime, that I also might die willingly with thee? 
What a great wonder that thou hast despised in such a 
way the wickedness of the enemy! how thou hast escaped 
from the power of the princes of the darkness of this world, 
my daughter, and hast entered into everlasting life ! " 

Now when Agapius heard these things, a great astonish- 
ment fell upon him; and he ran weeping to the Abbot, 
and related all the occurrence to him. Now when the 
Abbot had heard these things he came in haste and fell upon 
the corpse of the holy Euphrosyne weeping, and crying 
out and saying : " Bride of the Christ ! and holy daughter, 
do not disappoint the members of thy community, nor this 
holy monastery, but pray and beg from God that He may 


give us understanding that we may direct it courageously 

and reach the haven of salvation, and enjoy with thee the 

good things of eternity." And he commanded them to beat 

the wooden gongs, and to assemble all the communities, 

and accompany her with great honour. Then when all the 

communities were congregated to learn about the story of 

the saint, a great amazement fell upon them all, and they 

sang praises to God who had done signs and wonders. Then f. 85 a 

one of the brethren who had only one eye, the other one 

being closed, stepped in to embrace the body of the saint. 

And when he put his face to her face, his eye, which was 

closed, was opened and he saw with it And when all the 

brethren saw it they sang praises to God, who is to be 

admired in His saints and who doeth signs and wonders 

by their hands, and who hath given the seal of remission 

and of redemption to those who are willing to take refuge 

in the love of our Lord Jesus the Christ. And they carried 

the body of the saint in procession with psalms and hymns 

as it was fitting. And they put her on the bier of the 

fathers in a place of honour. Then her father Paphnutius 

gave all his wealth and his possessions to the churches and 

to the monasteries, to the poor, the orphans, and the widows. 

But he gave the greater part of his riches to the monastery 

in which his daughter Euphrosyne lay. And, moreover, he 

shut himself up in his daughter's cell. And he had great 

consolation in the rug upon which his daughter had 

lain on the ground during her life. And her father lived 

for ten years in that monastery and departed to his Lord. 

And he left the things of earth, and was buried by the side 1 

of Saint Euphrosyne his daughter ; to the glory of the 

Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, to whom 

be dignity, praise and honour for ever and ever. Amen* 

Here endeth the story of Esmeraldus of Alexandria. 

i Literally "over the body." 


f. 85 b Again, the story of the blessed Onesima 1 . 

There was a certain blessed woman in Egypt whose 
name was Onesima, and she was the daughter of the king. 
And fifteen cities in the world belonged to her parents. 
And she being their daughter, they placed the crown on 
her in their lifetime, for they said, "Lest our royal 
dynasty be obliterated, let him who comes and takes her, 
establish the kingdom after us." For all the floor of their 
palace was inlaid with slabs of white marble ; and all the 
walls were embossed with sheep and oxen on planks of 
cedar-wood and on slabs of ivory, and with plates of 
bronze, incrusted and embossed with narcissi and lilies. 
And the girl was brought up in such a manner that she 
was accustomed to read the Scriptures every day of her 
life from the third hour till the ninth hour. She was 
adorned with great beauty, passing that of all other 

Now one day, whilst she was sitting, reading in the 
Scripture, [something] came into her mind. And she 
sighed, and wept, and said: "If God has willed, both 
my parents may die together, and they have not given, 
me to a husband, and I may fall amidst the troubles 
of this world." And then a few days afterwards, as 
if it were by the will of God, both her parents failed 
and died together. Then the blessed Onesima celebrated 
1 MS. Onesimus. 


their obsequies in white garments. And after her parents f. 86 a 
were at rest and she had come away from the grave, 
she went to the church with the crown resting on her 
head, and prayed ; then went joyfully home, But many 
people were jesting and saying, "It is not proper for a 
woman, a virgin, the daughter of a king, to display her 
beauty." But the blessed one did not take it to heart. 
Now many days afterwards as she. was sitting and 
reading from the Gospel, she found where our Lord said 
to the young man, * Go, sell all that thou hast, and give to 
the poor, and take up thy cross, and follow Me ; and thou 
shalt have treasure in heaven." Then the blessed Onesima 
sighed and wept, and said, "Alas! that I should have 
meditated on divine Scriptures from my childhood and 
I have not done the one thing that is beautiful in the sight 
of God and of man." And she sent instantly and fetched 
lawyers, and bequeathed everything that belonged to her 
to the orphans, and to the widows, and to the churches, 
and to the hospices ; and she freed her slaves and bond- 
maidens ; and she went out and stood at the door of her 
palace. And she took her tunic and her veil from off her 
head and the girdle of gold from her waist, and the royal 
crown, and she flung them down inside the door of her 
palace, saying, "Goodbye to you, O wealth of this world! and 
gold, and sin 1 , and let the Christ alone be my companion." 
Then nothing of the treasures of her ancestors belonged to 
the blessed one except the Gospel which lay next to her 
bosom. And when she had arrived at a hostelry, she took a f. 86 b 
worn-out ragged cloth and put it over her nakedness. Then 
the blessed one said in her heart, "It is not fitting that 
I should dwell in a place where there are people who 
know me, and that they should see me and say, ' It is she 
who freed her slaves and her bond-maidens/ and that they 

1 MS. gold of sin. 


should praise me and that I should exchange the love of 
the Christ for the glory of this world. I will go away to 
foreign parts, to where even if I say that something belongs 
to me, nobody will believe me, and I shall feign myself 
mad : and no honour will come to me from men, and all 
who see me will mock me, and despise me, and drive me 
away. Shall I speak of cultivated land, and not of the desert? 
But I have read in the Scripture and have glorified God." 

Then the blessed one went out to the wilderness and 

walked for forty parasangs 1 . And [instead of] the great 

luxury that she had possessed, immediately when the sun 

touched her it burnt her, like a flower stricken by the 

summer-heat And she walked in the wilderness and her 

blood flowed, and trickled from her footprints while she 

walked on the stumps of the wilderness. Then the blessed 

one sat down and read from the Scripture in the wilderness, 

and the wild beasts came together from every place, and 

creeping things and flying things and fowls, and they sat at 

the feet of the blessed one, and listened to the sound of the 

f. 87 a reading of the Scriptures which lasted from the third hour 

till the ninth hour; and when she took up the book to carry 

it with her the beasts would go away from her for nine 

hours and repair to their pastures. And immediately when 

they were removed from her to a distance of nine steps, 

they would find their pasture of every kind suitable to each 

of them, so that some provender was given to every one, 

because they were constantly coming to her for many 

days; and for forty years the beasts kept the fasts with 

her in the wilderness, sitting beside her constantly, and 

never going completely away from her. And the food of 

the blessed one was the fruit of date palms, and she drank 

water from the fountain, until the appearance of her face 

was like the colour of sackcloth. 

1 A parasang is a day's journey. 


And after she had been for forty years in the desert she 
said to herself, " Woe is me ! how I am dwelling in comfort, 
and I am regaled with eating the fruit of the date palms, 
and I drink water from the fountain, and I resemble the 
wild ass that treads on the grass, and there is no voice to 
tame him, and it is not possible to guide him. I, likewise, 
have no one to quarrel with me, nor to revile me, nor is 
there a man to laugh with me, nor with whom I can be 
angry, that I may be requited for it. For if I be without a 
man who is the guardian of my soul ; I have no recom- 
pence, but I will live in the cultivated land in a convent, f. 87 b 
and I will care for my own soul and for my companions ; 
and I will wash the feet of the sisters, and will give rest to 
the weary and to the troubled ; and I will be despised by 
the sisters, and I will wash the feet of strangers. And I 
will be scourged by the Abbess, and will endure it from 
those who are younger than myself. And I will bear reviling 
because of my love to the Christ And I shall have a 
recompence from God. And I will fast. And when I have 
fasted they will say, 'She has been eating.' And I will 
abstain from wine, and they will say that I have been 
drinking at a feast. And I will serve, and they will consider 
me idle. And I will keep a vigil, and they will call me a 
sleeper. For if these afflictions do not pass over me, and 
if I do not endure suffering, and contempt does not pass 
over me, I shall have no remuneration in the presence of 

And the blessed Onesima went to the door of a convent, 
which was called the Convent of the Sedrarum 1 , in which 
there were sisters living three hundred in number ; and she 
knocked at the door of this convent. And a certain old 
sister came out and answered her, who had stood at the 
door for forty years, till her person had become rigid down 

1 Or "Anthems." 


to her knees from the heaviness of her life and the antiquity 
of her years. 

The aged one answered and said to her, "Why dost 
thou knock at this door ? Tell me, my daughter, what thou 
wantest, that I may give it to thee. Perhaps thou art in 
some pain. Can I do anything that would be of use to 

f. 88 a thee"? And Onesima was silent for seven days and did 
not give her an answer. And the aged one said, "Alas for 
this our daughter, she is surely mad ! And I know from her 
appearance, how beautiful she was ; although she is spoiled 
by demons. I will show favour to her for the sake of God; 
and I will bring her in and shut her up in one of 'the cells 
near the door, and no demon shall come from any of the 
mountains to oppress her/' And she brought her in and 
made her sit down in one of the houses, and put three chains 
upon her, and said to her, " In the name of the Only Son 
who was hung upon the Cross, I have put three chains upon 
thee. May the power of the only Son of God help thee !" 
And the aged one left her chained near the door, and went 
in and said to the Abbess, "My Lady! My Lady! this 
daughter of ours is led captive by Satan, the destroyer of 
men. And she passed by the door and it has come out by 
the force of thy prayer and thou hast delivered her from its 
hands." She commanded her to enter. The Abbess said to 
her, "What dost thou wish ?" " That I may bring in God's 
afflicted one and wash her feet, that ye may give rest to 
the weary and the troubled, and to those who carry heavy 
burdens ; and if ye are washing the feet of strangers, may 
their dust be upon us [as] the filth of our sins." 

And the sisters went out with the door-keeper and 
brought in the blessed one. And she feigned herself mad 

f, 88 b and did not wish to enter with them. And when they had 
surrounded her they brought her in by force, and they 
were going to take the book from her, and they could not 


get it out of her hands as she did not give it to them. But 
she feigned herself mad, as one who did not know what 
they were saying to her. But they were saying to each 
other, "What is that book which she is carrying, and 
which she did not allow to be snatched from her hands ?" 
And they tried to wash her feet, and she did not allow 
them [to do it,] and like one who was really mad she tore 
the clothes of the sisters. And they put questions to her, 
and she did not answer them. And when they saw her 
thus, they said to the Abbess, " If she cries out, leave her 
there, and be cautious about her, lest the evil one come, and 
throw her into the fire. And they left her in the prison." 
And she slept there and got up. And there she went in 
and out and swept the prison-house. And she did work 
on behalf of every one. And day by day like a person 
who is kneading dough she was beating with her feet, 
and crying out as if the demon had come upon her. 
And she was scourged by the sisters, and was rejoicing in 
her mind. And day by day she carried a jar of water, and f. 89 a 
went out to give drink to strangers at the partings of the 
highways. And day after day she broke the jar in the 
courtyard of the. convent like a person possessed with a 
demon. And three times a year a place which the sisters 
went out to of necessity, was thoroughly washed out by her 
hands, through the sagacity of her mind (and) for die sake 
of God. And those who came in and who went out beat 
her and derided her. And she was buffeted by all of them. 
And after the lapse of forty years that she had been in 
tie wilderness, and forty years in the prison of the convent, 
eighty years in all, the angel of God appeared to the 
blessed Abbot of the Anchorites, who had been shut up in 
a cell for many years, and said to him, "Dudina, thy 
service has been pleasing to the guardian angels, and the 
angels rejoice in thy vigil. Now go out of thy cell, and 

L. E. l 


go to receive a blessing from a woman who is shut up 
in the prison in the convent of the Sedrarum, and thy 
service will be doubled again the more with the divine 
talent and the merchandise of the Christ" And the blessed 
one went forth from his retreat and persuaded the Bishop 
and the superintendent to give him leave to go to the 
convent, because men did not enter it. And because he 
f. 89 b was the Abbot of Abila, and was very excellent in his 
life, the Bishop and superintendent did not refuse, nor 
forbid him to enter that convent And when the blessed 
one went and arrived at it, the angel of God said to him, 
" When thou dost enter the convent, behold all the sisters 
have put on hoods ; and the sister about whom thou hast 
been told, has a crown of old rags on her head, and she is 
all but naked ; approach and receive her blessing." And 
the brethren went before him and said to them, " Behold, 
the blessed Abbot of the Anchorites has come to receive a 
blessing from you." And all the sisters were greatly agitated 
with weeping, and said, " Woe to us, for our sins have been 
exposed in the presence of God, and the servant of God 
is come to curse us. And we shall be condemned by the 
just judgment of God." 

And when he was about to enter, the sisters went out 
to meet him, with psalms and hymns also. But that 
sister did not go out with them, because she said in her 
heart, " I will feign myself mad, and I will stay quietly in 
the prison, and I shall not go out. And he will see me, 
and prayer will be made to God for me, (to know) who 
I am and whose daughter I am. And he will make it 
known to the sisters and he will honour me, and I shall 
destroy the work that I have wrought before God." 

And all the sisters advanced and saluted him, and were 
blessed by him. And when he stood up, he looked here 
and there, and that sister did not appear to him amongst 


them, about whom the angel of the Lord had spoken to him. E, 90 a 
And he answered and said to the Abbess, " There is one of 
your sisters wanting, she is not amongst you, and I desire 
to see her/ 3 The Abbess replied and said to him, "There 
is no sister here, my lord, except one who is mad, and it 
is not possible for her to go out, because she is deranged." 
And the blessed one said, "Send and fetch her.*' And 
the sisters went in to seek her : but she did not want to go 
out with them. And whilst they were dragging her along 
and striking her on the face, and sprinkling ashes on her 
eyes, and beating her with the besoms of the prison-house 
and saying to her, " Get out, wicked demon ! behold ! thy 
demon knows the agent of the Christ who is standing 
outside, and it forbids thee to come out lest he should 
cast it out from thee." And as they were dragging 
her and bringing her out, the blessed saint the Abbot of 
the Anchorites saw her, and he ran to meet her, and he 
fell down and did obeisance to her, and took off the cowl 
from his head and said, "Bless me, my lady!" And the 
sisters answered and said to him, " Rise, my lord I she is 
a mad woman." And he said to them, "It is ye who 
are mad women, but she is the salt which flavours the 
savourless, which Satan had made insipid by reason of 
sins." And when he had said this to them, they were 
pained in their heart, and they repented and opened their 
eyes with weeping, and they stripped off the three hundred 
veils from their heads. And they threw themselves down 
before him and said to him, " My lord, intercede with her, 
that she may tread with a holy step on the veils, for there 
is not one of us who has not sinned against her." For f. gob 
there was one saying, " I have certainly beaten her ; " and 
one said, " I have certainly struck her ; " and another said, 
" When I washed a dish or a kettle I threw it at her head, 
on a day of snow and ice." And saying these things they 


came and fell at the feet of the saint and beat their heads 
on the ground, saying to her, "Have mercy upon us, 
handmaid of God, thou who art entering into the marriage- 
supper of light, and persuade the lord of the feast not to 
drive us out at the door into outer darkness." And as they 
said these things they wept and fell down before her until 
the convent became like a field that had been irrigated with 
water from the tears of their eyes. 

Now the blessed one was inwardly perplexed; but 
outwardly she laughed, whilst they 'were saying these 
things to her, till a voice from heaven was heard, saying 
to them: "I have accepted, and I accept the tears of 
your repentance." And the blessed one heard that voice 
speaking to them. And immediately the blessed [man] 
led her and took her over these veils to a broad path 
in the form of a cross. And he said to them: "May 
God give health to your hidden companions ! " And he 
preached to them from the third hour till the ninth hour ; 
then he arose and went out, and they accompanied him as 
5.91 a far as the door of the convent. And when they had 
reached the door they said to him: "My lord, behold it is 
a hundred and thirty years since this convent was built, 
and there is none here who has seen this door since the 
first [moment] she entered it, except this old woman who 
has kept it now for an hundred and two years." They 
said to him : " See ! at this door we received thee, and at 
this door we leave thee. But, my lord, go in peace to 
thy retreat, and pray for us to thy Lord in thy monastery." 
And when the blessed one went to the retreat, to the cell 
which was in the wilderness, the sisters assembled them- 
selves together and they stooped down and carried Saint 
Onesima in their hands from the door of the convent to the 
hall of service, rejoicing and triumphing about her as about 
a precious treasure. 


And she was in the convent for about ten days. And 
whenever she went for a walk, they were gathering up 
the dust of her steps and rubbing it on their bodies as a 
medicament And she was perplexed in her heart at the 
honour they were paying her. And she looked and saw 
that the door-keeper was not there; and she ran, and got 
out and went away, and no one knows where she went to ; 
nor is even where she slept known to men. 

And behold ! the remembrance of her will be trans- f. 91 b 
mitted until the coming of the Son of God. To Him, and 
to His Father, and to the Holy Spirit, be praise, and 
honour, and adoration for ever. Here endeth the story of 
the blessed Onesima. 


AGAIN, the martyrdom of Saint Drusis, and of those 
who were martyred with her in Antioch, in the reign of 
Trajan, the bad and wicked man. He had a daughter, a 
child of his [own] body, but not of his [own] faith. This 
Trajan had a burning desire and solicitude to build a 
public bath in the city of Antioch in Syria, and all the 
more because of his partners in wickedness, inasmuch as 
both by name and by nature he was a tyrant 

He had also a sinful ardour and a great eagerness in 
seeking to destroy and suppress the holy people of the 
Christians. Therefore he was considering and imagining 
evil things every day against the worshippers of the Christ 
And when he had put three people to death every day, he 
went to see the work of the building of his public bath ; for 
he would not go previously to look at it until he had put 
many Christians to death : the corpses of the saints lying 
unburied in various places. 

f. 92 a Now there were five virgin-nuns, three of them being 

virgins and sisters and also their mother. And they 
had a spiritual sister who was named Sufu. These lived 
in a convent, and they went out by night and stole the 
bodies of the saints who had been slain by the wicked 
Trajan. And they wrapped them up and hid them in the 
garden of their convent, anointing their limbs with sweet 
ointment But this matter was made known to the wicked 
Trajan ; that women were coming by night and stealing 
the corpses of these unclean Christians. And if they were 
permitted to act thus, every one would be driven from 


the house of the gods, through the function of services to 
their corpses. And when the lamb of the Christ, Drasis, 
heard what had been said by her father about these people, 
she was moved to penitence in her spirit, and she stole 
a costly and valuable garment belonging to her father, 
and she ran away whilst the men of her body-guard were 
sunk in sleep ; and when she went out, she saw these 
sister- nuns carrying the corpses of these holy martyrs, and 
she went with them into their convent, she also carrying a 
corpse on her pure back; rejoicing and exulting because of 
the good [fortune] that Sufu had received her amongst 

But Adrianus was the adviser of the Emperor Trajan, f. 92 b 
and was also the betrothed bridegroom of the maiden 
Drusina; and he advised Trajan, saying, "My Lord the 
Emperor, command the soldiers to guard the city by night, 
that we may know who these are who steal the bones of 
the Christians who have met with a violent death." And 
this counsel was pleasing in the eyes of Trajan, and he 
himself gave orders to the soldiers, saying, "Watch and 
arrest for me those who steal the pestilent and unclean 
bones of these Christians, so that I may know because of 
what hope and expectation they do this." 

Now whilst the soldiers were doing what they had been 
commanded by the Emperor [to do,] they found these five 
nuns with Drusina, who were accompanying and wrapping 
up the bodies of the saints, and they imprisoned these five 
carefully and put irons on their feet Then they came to 
Drusis, and when they saw her, they said to each other, 
" Let us not put irons on this one, lest he take pity, like a 
father, on his daughter, and lay evil things upon us. But, 
nevertheless, let us be careful with her, and keep her till 
the morning/' 

And when the morning came, they made it known to 


Trajan, saying, "My Lord the Emperor, the gods have 
fulfilled thy desire ; but one thing prevents and restrains 
us from speaking in thy presence." Then he said to them, 
"Fear not/' Then the soldiers of the wicked (Emperor) 
replied to him, saying : " We found five nuns whose faces 

93 a were shining like the stars of heaven, and we imprisoned 
these nuns and put them in irons. But when we were going 
to lay hands on the sixth, we saw her face shining and 
beaming more than the sun ; and on her therefore we did 
not dare to put irons ; lest haply thy divinity should be 
angry with us. For she is our mistress, the daughter of the 
Emperor." Now when Trajan and his son-in-law Adrianus 
heard this they were very angry and they said to the 
soldiers, "O what a cruel death ye shall die! My lady 
Drusis is in her bed-chamber, and how say ye that she is 
imprisoned outside ?" And the Emperor summoned the 
body-guards of his daughter, and inquired from them 
where Drusis was. But they said to him, "O Lord the 
Emperor, our life and our death are in thy hands. Whilst 
we were sleeping, we did not know what became of her." 
Then Trajan was persuaded, and believed what the lictors 
had said to him. And Adrianus counselled along with the 
priests, the teachers of evil, saying, " How hast thou com- 
manded that these five women should die?" Some of 
them were saying that they should be thrown into the 
river Orontes, and be drowned ; and others were saying, 
"Nay, but shame them and put them in the pillory 1 ." 

f. 93 b Adrianus said : " My Lord the Emperor, behold ! there 
is the public hall, and nothing is wanting but that we 
should set up its own foundry. Command therefore, 
my Lord the Emperor, that there be a great furnace, .and 
let copper things be fused in it, so that when they are 
consumed in it, not a single bone of them may be visible." 
1 Literally "place of retribution." 


And this counsel pleased every one, and he sent and 
summoned the smelters of statues, and said to them : 
u Prepare a furnace for yourselves, lofty in height, and throw 
these wicked women into it. And whilst ye are heating 
them, pour copper upon them, so that their floor and the 
copper may become one; and then arrange it and make 
from them the bottom of brass. I desire then that at the 
feast of the consecration of the public bath, in the high 
place which is called Apollonia I may do what will appease 
the gods." And he commanded that Drusina should be 
kept with great care, saying, u Perhaps she will repent of 
what she has formerly done. And what the gods have 
bestowed upon her I will repay to them instead of her. 
For the faith of the Christians is the strongest of all 
witchcrafts; and it is very difficult for those who are 
falling into it to change to another religion." 

Then Adrianus was inciting him, saying, "As thy majesty 
has commanded, I will arrange these [women] in order in the 
furnaces of Apollonia, near [this]. Command therefore, my 
Lord the Emperor, that it be proclaimed this day." Then f. 94 a 
he decreed a law and commandment in all the town after 
this manner : " Men of Antioch, all ye who believe in the 
gods, prepare yourselves and go up with us in the beginning 
of the month of Tammuz. For I desire and am ready to 
celebrate the consecration of the public bath of Trajan 
along with that of Zeus, that is, [in] the temples of Zeus 
and of Apollo. All therefore who hated the Christ, and 
were worshippers of idols, go ye up with songs and choruses, 
and in dazzling white dresses with me to the consecration 
of the public bath." And every one therefore who went in to 
wash himself, when he opened the first door of the building, 
fell down instantly and gave up the ghost, so that no man 
was able to enter by that first door. Then they made 
known this matter to the wicked Trajan. And the priests of 
L. E. K 


vanities and servants of worthless idols said in his presence, 
" O Emperor, these bones which have been melted in that 
copper have removed the mercies of the gods. But com- 
mand that there be second furnaces and thus shalt thou 
purify the public bath." 

And when these things had been so done, Adrianus 
counselled that the first copper of the furnace should be set 
up in the middle of this, and that they should place them 
(the women) in the public bath for the scorn and contempt 
of every one. Then there appeared to the wicked Trajan 
f. 94 b in a dream five pure lambs feeding in a park, and the 
shepherd who tended them answered and said to the bad 
and wicked Trajan, "Those whom thou hast expected to 
expose to scorn, the good and gentle Shepherd has snatched 
them from thee, and has put them in that place to which 
Drusina also is ready to enter without stain." And when 
the wicked man awoke he was very angry, because that 
after their death those handmaids of God would be 
bringing shame to his conscience and to his counsels. 
Then he commanded that there should be two furnaces, 
and that they should be heated every day. 

And when first he arose from his sleep he issued a 
decree after this fashion: "Ye men of Galilee, ye who 
worship the Crucified One, save yourselves from tortures, 
and me also from troubles; and let each of you throw 
himself into these furnaces. For every time that I do 
something to diminish you, your God makes you to in- 
crease greatly.*' 

Now when this decree was ordained, the lamb of God, 
Drusina, listened, and every one of the Christians came, 
and, with the loving fervour of faith, threw himself into the 
furnace, whilst the Lord wrought miracles and wonders by 
their means. But the simple lamb Drusina threw her glance 


up towards heaven, and said: "O Lord God, if Thou 
hast willed the salvation of Thy handmaiden, chase away 
from me the vain fear of Trajan's threats. Receive me f. 95 a 
also in Thine espousals, and deliver me from wedlock 
with the wicked Adrianus. And plunge my custodians 
in sleep, and deliver me from them." And she took 
off the imperial robe and ran away with the intention 
of throwing herself into one of the furnaces with those who 
believed in the Christ. And when she came and stood 
beside the first furnace in the vicinity of the public bath of 
her father Trajan, she came to herself and said, " Behold ! 
Drusina is going to God's presence, and she has no wedding 
garment How shall I who have received no purification 
go to that Holy One ? How shall I go, being unbaptized ? 
I will go towards the second furnace. Perhaps one of God's 
servants will be found and he will baptize me and I shall 
go adorned as a bride/' And when she came near to the 
second furnace, she saw all those who had thrown them- 
selves [into it] for the sake of the Christ, and it grieved 
her much. And she saw a well of water to the north of 
the second furnace ; and she lifted up her eyes 1 to heaven 
and said : " King of all kings, behold for Thy sake I have 
left my imperial palace, so that Thou mayest place me 
amongst the doorkeepers of Thy kingdom. Thou art pure 

and holy look on me and baptize me by the Holy 

Spirit. Come* therefore, Thou beloved Son, with the 
blessed and immortal Father, in thy Holy life-giving f. 95 b 
Spirit, and baptize me in this place, and let all the holy 
angels say Amen." 

And when she had said, Amen, she took sweet salve 
and promptly anointed her whole body, and threw herself 
into the well. And thus was the holy Drusina crowned. 

1 Literally 'glance.' 


But she lived for seven days after her immersion in the 
font, when she had partaken of the body and blood of our 
Lord Jesus the Christ from the hands of the holy angels. 
And on the eighth day she died 1 by being burnt in the 
furnace with those believers, and surrendered her spirit, to 
the glory of God the Father, and our Lord Jesus the Christ, 
to whom be praise and honour for ever. 

Here endeth the story of Drusina, and of those who 
were martyred with her. 

1 Literally "was crowned." 


AGAIN the story of Saint Barbara in Heliopolis. f. 95 b 

During the reign of the bad and wicked Aximus, there 
was a governor [named] Aquinus, and there was a great 
persecution of the Christians. And there was a certain 
man in an Eastern land, in the city which is called Heliopolis, 
and he lived in a village named Glasius, which is twelve 
miles distant from Euchaita, and his name was Dioscums ; 
and he was very rich, and he was benevolent, and he had 
an" only daughter, and her name was Barbara. And her f. 96 a 
father made a high tower for her, and shut her up in it, so 
that she might not be seen of men, because of the exceeding 
fairness of her beauty. But some of the great and distin- 
guished men of the city came to the father of Saint Barbara, 
and tried to persuade him about a marriage union. But 
when these things were spoken of to her father, he went 
up to the tower beside his daughter, and said to her : " My 
daughter, some great people have been trying to persuade 
me concerning thee, to betroth thee to them. What dost 
thou wish, my beloved daughter?" But she gazed on him 
with anger, and lifted up her glance to heaven and said : 
" Do not force me to do this, father, or else I will kill 

Then he left her and went down. And he was solicitous 
about the edifice which he was building to make it a 
bath-house. And he set on a great number of workmen 
so that they might finish his great building quickly; and 
he commanded them that they should do it in a manner 
suitable to what they were building, and then he gave 


to each of them his full wage, and went to a far-off place. 
And he stayed there a good while. 

And the handmaid of God, Barbara, went down to see 
that building, where the workmen were. And when she 
saw that great edifice, she saw two windows in the south 
f. 96 b side placed separately, and she said to the workmen, "Why 
have you put only two windows ?" And they said to 
her, "Thus hath thy father commanded us." The hand- 
maid of God, Barbara, said to them, " Do this thing that 
I command you, without fear. Set up another one for me." 
But they said to her, " We are afraid, lady, lest when thy 
father comes, he will be angry at us." 

The handmaid of the Christ, Barbara, said to them, 
" I have told you, Do without fear what I tell you. And I 
will persuade my father concerning this." And they agreed 
to it, and set up another window as she had told them. 

Now when the handmaid of God, Barbara, had walked 
into the bath-house, which was being built, she entered on 
its eastern side. And she drew with her finger on the 
marble wall the sign of the cross. And the figure of the 
cross is there till this day, for the penitence and confusion 
of those who see it and do not believe ; whilst it was a 
cause of fear to all those who approached and entered it 
and believed, receiving healing and help. 

And whilst this bath-house was a healing and a cure 

for all pains and sufferings, by means of that which the 

saint of God brought into it : and when she had ascended 
to the tower in which she dwelt, she lifted up her eyes and 
f. 97 a saw those idols which her father worshipped. And she cried 
to the Holy and life-giving Spirit, and she conquered the 
Devil and spat in the faces of the idols, saying to them, 
Ps. cxv. 8 "Your makers are like you, and all those who trust in 
you." And she climbed up to her tower and prayed con- 
tinually to the Holy Cross. 


And when the work of the artificers was completely 
finished, her father arrived. But when he saw three 
windows set up, he said to the artificers : " Why have ye 
set up three windows?" And they said to him: "Thy 
daughter has commanded us to do thus." And he said to 
his daughter : " Hast thou commanded them to do thus ? " 
And she said to him : " Yes, for I did well in commanding 
it; because it is pleasing that the Trinity enlightens all 
men who come into the world. For two would have been 

And her father led her, and went down from the 
tower to the bath-house which he had built, and he 
said to her : " Tell me, in what way is the light of three 
better than that of two?" And the handmaid of God, 
Barbara, said to him : " Look and see ! lo, there is the 
Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost" 

Then her father was filled with rage, and drew his 
sword to strike her, and the holy Barbara prayed: and 
immediately the rock was cleft, and it received her inside 
of itfself] and it put her out on the mountain. 

Now there were in that mountain two shepherds feeding 
[their] flocks, and they saw her running. But her father 
climbed to that mountain, and asked the shepherds about her. 
And one of them wishing to rescue her, denied with oaths f. 97 b 
that he had seen her, whilst the* other shepherd pointed her 
out with, his finger, and the handmaid of God, Barbara, 

cursed him. And immediately his flocks and they 

are beside the tomb of the saint until this day. But as her 
father climbed up and found her, he dragged her by the 
hair of her head, and drove her with blows from the moun- 
tain, and he made her go into a little narrow cell and 
imprisoned her, and shut the door in her face and sealed 
it with his signet-ring, and set sentinels to guard her, so 
that no one might be able to open [it] to her until he 


should go and make her stand before Marcianus the 
governor ; and should commit her to him for judgment 

And when the governor had arrived he commanded 
them to bring her. Then her father went in with Gerontius 
the prison-clerk, and they brought her out of the cell, and 
delivered her up to the governor, her father swearing to him 
by his gods that he would put her to death by severe 
punishments and bitter tortures. 

Then the governor sat on his judgment-seat, and 
when he saw her beauty he said to her : " What dost thou 
wish ? have pity on thy body and sacrifice, or else I will 
deliver thee up to bitter torments/' The handmaid of 
God, Barbara, answered and said to him : " I am ready to 
offer the sacrifice of praise to the Saviour of my soul, to 
Him who hath made the heavens and the earth, and the sea, 
and all that in them is ; for concerning thy gods the prophet 
f. 98 a David has said : * They have a mouth, but they speak not ; 
Ps. cxv. 5 they have eyes but they see not ; they have ears, but they 
hear not ; they have hands, but they feel not ; they have 
feet, but they walk not, and they cry not with their throats. 
Their makers are like unto them, and so are all those who 
trust in them/" 

Then the governor was filled with rage and anger; 
and he commanded them to strip the holy woman, 
and to tear her body with an ox-hide, and to rub her 
wounds with a hairy garment, so that all her body should 
be bathed in her blood. And he commanded them to take 
her to the prison-house, until he should consider by what 
punishment he would put her to death. 

And at midnight a great light dawned upon her, and 
our Redeemer appeared to her, saying, " Be strong and of 
good courage, my beloved martyr ; there is great joy about 
thee in heaven and on earth, because of thy witness. Be 
not afraid of the threats of the tyrant, for I am with thee, 


and I will deliver thee from all the punishments that they 
may bring upon thee." And immediately her wounds were 
healed, and not one of them appeared on her body. And 
when the Lord had said these things to her, He set His seal 
upon her and ascended to heaven with His holy angels. 
And the handmaid of the Christ rejoiced and was glad at 
the revelation of the Lord. 

Now there was with her a certain woman who feared 
God, whose name was Juliana, and she had joined herself 
to the holy Barbara, and she saw the wonders and the signs f. 98 b 
that God did by the hands of the holy one, and she gave 
herself up along with her to stripes and to tortures. And at 
the dawn of the day the governor commanded them to bring 
her. And when he saw her wounds that they were healed 
and had disappeared, he said to her, " I see, Barbara, how 
the gods care about thee, and they love thee, and heal 
(thee), for lo ! they have even healed thy wounds." The 
martyr of the Christ, Barbara, answered and said to the 
governor, " In truth thou hast gods which are blind and 
dumb and stupid, and that cannot move. How can they 
heal wounds they who can neither cure themselves nor 
help themselves? But nevertheless He who has cured me 
is our Lord Jesus the Christ, the Redeemer of the world, 
the Son of the Living God ; He whom thou art unworthy 
to behold because of the blind remoteness 1 of thy heart, 
which is blinded by the devil." 

Then the governor was enraged and ground his teeth 
like a lion ; and he commanded them to tear her sides 
with a comb and singe them with burning lamps, and 
to strike her on the crown of her head with a hammer. 

But when Juliana, she who loved God, saw the blows 
that they had arranged, she wept convulsively. Then said 
Marcianus the governor, "Who is this woman?" Those 
1 Literally " blindness of the remoteness." 

L. E. L 


who were standing in his presence said to him, " She is 
f.99a a Christian, and is grieved about Barbara." And the 
governor was enraged, and commanded them to hang her 
up, and to tear her sides with combs, and to singe all her 
body with lamps. But the holy Barbara lifted up her eyes 
to heaven and said : "Thou, Lord Jesus the Christ, knowest 
what is in the hearts of those who love Thee. Forsake me 
not, thine handmaid, nor my sister Juliana." 

When they had bravely endured these tortures, the 
governor commanded that the breasts of the holy Barbara 
should be cut off with knives. And whilst they were being 
cut off, the martyr of the Christ, Barbara, was singing 
psalms and saying : " Lord, turn not Thy face away from 
us, and take not Thy Holy Spirit from Thy handmaid, but 
turn to me the joy of Thy salvation, and may Thy glorious 
Spirit uphold me in Thy fear." 

And while they were bearing these punishments bravely, 
the governor commanded that they should separate Juliana 
from the saint, in the prison, and guard her. But about 
the holy Barbara he commanded that they should lead her 
about naked through all that province and should beat her 
unmercifully with stripes. 

But the martyr of the Christ, Barbara, looked up to 
heaven, and said, " God, who dost cover the sun with 
clouds, let down upon me the wing of Thy mercy, and be 
my helper; and cover this my naked body, and let it not be 
seen by these bad and wicked men." Whilst she was saying 
this the Lord came, seated on the chariot of cherubim ; 
and He sent the angels and clothed her with a white 
garment And whilst they were leading her about in all 
that province, they brought her to a certain village which 
was called Dalisin, to the governor Marcianus, Then that 
governor commanded that she should die by the sword, 
with her sister Juliana. 


The father of the saint was thereafter filled with 
rage, and took her away from the governor, and led the 
holy Barbara up to a mountain. She was eager and 
hastened, so that she might attain to the complete reward 
from above to which she was called along with the holy 
Juliana. And whilst the holy Barbara was on the way she 
prayed and said : " O Lord Jesus the Christ ! co-eternal 
with the Father, the invisible, the uncreated, the crown of 
martyrs, He who has stretched out and laid the foundations 
of the earth; He who commands the clouds and they 
produce the rain, and brings down His dew on the good 
and on the bad : He who walketh on the back of the sea 
and does not wet His steps, for all obey Thee, Lord 
Jesus the Christ, because they are the work of Thy hands. 
Do thou grant us the request which I seek from Thee, and 
give grace to me, Thy handmaid. And to every one who 
makes mention of Thy holy name, and of the name of 
Thy handmaid, and who makes a commemoration and 
remembers my martyrdom : O Lord God my Saviour, 
let no plague of infection nor of cancer come upon that 
country nor on that house, on the body of any one who 
is in it, whether male or female, nor yet upon the children, f. 100 a 
And remember not against them their sins, but grant a 
recovery even to the lepers. For Thou knowest, Lord ! 
that they are flesh and blood, the work of Thy pure and 
holy hands. And to Thee honour and adoration is due for 
ever and ever. Amen." 

And when she had said Amen, there was a voice from 
heaven near her saying, "Come, my martyr, thou art 
clothed with suffering, and thou hast won the victory in 
thine own person. Come, rest in the mansions of my 
Paradise, in Heaven, with my beloved Juliana. For 
what thou hast asked hath been given to thee. And 
all those who are seized with the diseases which thou 


hast mentioned will be healed, whilst they confess their 

And when the martyr of the Christ, Barbara, had heard 
these things, she went to the place which was prepared for 
her to die in it. And she was crowned by the sword of 
her father Dioscurus. And she died, the holy virgin-martyr 
Barbara, with Juliana, she who had attached herself to her. 
And their heads were cut off in the...indiction, in that 

But when the father of the holy Barbara came down 
from the mountain, fire fell from heaven and consumed 
him and Marcianus the governor, so that it was seen also 
by those who stood round them. 

The holy Barbara was crowned in the month of 
December on Thursday. 

Glory and honour be to God for ever and ever. 

Here endeth the martyrdom of the holy Barbara. 

MARY. f. ioob 

AGAIN, the martyrdom of the blessed Mary. 

Hadrian and Antoninus, the wicked Emperors, had sent 
an Imperial decree, that everyone who worshipped the Christ 
should turn to their own religion and law, whilst they [who] 
should eat of the impure sacrifices should live and not die ; 
and that those who should be contentious and should resist 
the decree were to be delivered over to judgment. 

Now at that time the blessed Mary, the bride of the 
Christ, had grown up in the Christian confession ; for she 
was the bond-servant of Tertullius, a chief man of the city. 
But she was altogether a free woman of the Christ, and 
as it is written, " He who is called being a slave in the 
Christ, is the Lord's freeman." 

Now the birthday of the son of Tertullius arrived. 
And on that day he offered sacrifices and libations to 
the demons. And the noble Mary was slandered in the 
presence of her mistress by one of her companions. And 
she called her and said to her, " Tell me, why didst thou 
fast, and didst not keep 1 the feast with u$ ? Was it a vexa- 
tion to thee ?" 

Mary said, "Because I have lately been fasting. Or 
didst thou not know that I am a Christian, like my fathers?" 

And her mistress constrained her by force to eat. But 
she cried to the heavenly Bridegroom, to Jesus the Christ. 
And she answered and said, "Ye have power over this 
my body, but not over my soul. Let my speech be heard 
(though spoken) with boldness. Dost thou not understand 
that the festival of thy son was celebrated with the music of f. 101 a 

1 Literally "make." 

86 MARY. 

flutes and with cymbals and with impure rites and with 
drums and with lyres? But the festival of the Christians 
is celebrated with fasting and with praying and with purity 
and with spiritual songs." 

But as her mistress could not endure her boldness, she 
said, " I will treat thee so that thou shalt die of scourging." 
Mary answered, saying, "Do what thou wilt, because of the 
help of the Lord that is with me." And when her husband 
Tertullius came from the Forum she told him about the 
blessed Mary, And immediately without examination he 
commanded them to scourge her with whips. And he 
commanded them further to shut her up alone in a closet, 
and to give her food by measure. But the blessed one 
praised God, praying continually, that she might remain 
constant in bearing testimony for the Christ. 

And when three days 1 had passed it was told to the 
governor of the city that Tertullius had a certain Christian 
maid-servant in his house, and he was entreated that they 
might be in their city without any danger till the matter 
should be inquired into. And on the following day the 
governor sat on the judgment-seat, and commanded that 
they should fetch Tertullius. And all the Praetorium was 
assembled and all the people of the city. And the law of 
the Emperors was read in their presence, in which it was 
f. ici b thus written : " The great and mighty Emperors, the terrible 
and merciful Diocletian and Antoninus, the saviours and 
architects and supporters of the whole inhabited world, 
to all those who are under the sway 3 of our Empire, and 
observe the right of our majesty and are diligent in the 
worship of the gods, much greeting. 

" Forasmuch as a report has come to our ears, that 
suddenly the teachings of various men have sprung up, 

1 Sinai Palimpsest "months." 
3 Literally "hand," literally "mercifulness." 

MARY. 87 

which are contrary to the commandments of the gods and 
that seek to abolish the festivals of sacrifice, and the former 
laws of our ancestors and their great festivals are derided, 
therefore with the advice of the two Emperors, we com- 
mand simultaneously, because we desire that all men 
should worship with reverence 1 and fear, and should pro- 
pitiate the gods by sacrifice, and should not be like 
wandering beasts. And whosoever shall hide a Christian 
man or Christian woman, young men or maidens, old 
men or children, he shall die by the edge of the sword ; 
and his wealth shall be given to the treasury. And who- 
soever shall trace out these people, he shall receive all that 
they possess, and four hundred dinars shall be given to 
him over and above by the Emperors. And if a man be 
found who has transgressed these things which we command, 
he shall be held guilty by the law." 

And after the decree of the Emperors had been read, 
the governor answered and said to Tertullius, " Make a 
reply concerning this matter, for this is not a simple 
calamity for thee." 

The advocate, who stood up, said, " Hear us, O wise 
judge. The girl in whose account this innocent man is 
accused, was given with the dowry of his wife." 

The governor said, *' Is his wife of a free family ? " f - 102 * 
The advocate replied, "Yes, my lord, she is the daughter 
of a certain Aquilinus." The governor said, "Was this 
girl born in the house or was she bought with money?" 
Tertullius said, "She was born in the house, but her 
parents were bought by sale." Then the governor asked, 
" Is the steward alive or dead ? " Tertullius said, " Yes, my 
lord, he is dead." Then he asked him, " Are the parents 
of the girl alive ? " Tertullius said, et They are not alive." 
The governor said, "Were they of the religion of the 
Christians, or did they fear the gods ? " The master of the 
1 Literally, " mercifulness." 

88 MARY. 

girl answered, "They also worshipped the Christ who was 


The advocate said, "O most wise of judges, they have 
scourged her with many stripes, that she might come to this 
worship ; and if not, thou canst not turn her by force from 

her faith." 

And when the governor had asked all these things he 
said, " Because the whole of the Pretorium bears witness 
to Tertullius, and they do honour to his family with their 
praises, because he is of the senate, and they proclaim what 
is straightforward and good about him, and that he is a 
worshipper of the gods, and obedient to the Emperors ; 
and I also am convinced by the ancient writings, and the 
innocency of the man has been truly shown to me, he is 
therefore freed from our judgment until the Emperors can 
hear him: but let the insolent girl stand before the 
f. 102 b judgment-seat" And the lictors brought the bride of the 
Christ and placed her before the judge in the court of 
judgment. Then the wicked and bloodthirsty people 
shouted against her (saying) that she ought to be burnt 
alive. But the thoughts of the believing woman were all 
with God, and she looked up to the height of heaven, 
and called with boldness on our Lord, saying: 

"O Lord Jesus the Christ, Son of the Living God, 
true Son of the Father, whose birth no man can oppose ; 
neither emperors, nor judges, nor yet principalities, nor 
powers, nor yet lords, nor yet cherubim, nor yet seraphim ; 
because, O Lord, they all have been created by Thy 
hands; and without Thy mandate nothing could have 
existed ; and only Thy Father knoweth thee. Therefore 
He sent Thee from the highest heavens to the sinners 
who were awaiting Thee. Thou, O Lord the Christ, 
art the glorious High-Priest, the Redeemer and Saviour 
of our souls. O Lard, help Thy handmaiden, for she 
has no helper but Thee; that Thy holy name may be 

MARY. 89 

glorified, whilst Thou doest these things quickly. Accept 
the prayer of thy handmaid" 

The governor was amazed and astonished for about 
an hour : and he commanded that they should bring her 
before the judgment-seat ; and he asked her, saying, 
"What is thy name?" And she returned an answer, 
saying, "Why dost thou seek after my name? I am a 
Christian/* The governor said, " Is he who stands [there] 
thy master ? " The noble woman said, " He is the master 
of my body only, but over my soul God rules." 

The governor said, "Why dost thou not worship the f, 103 a 
gods as thy master worships (them)?" Mary said, " I am 
a Christian, and I do not worship the dumb idols, but I 
worship the living and true God, who is eternal." 

The judge said, " From whom didst thou receive (the 
idea) of being a Christian?" Mary said, "I received it 
from my parents." The judge said, "And were thy parents 
Christians?" Mary said, "They also received it from 
their parents." The judge said, "I suppose that before 
they received it ye were chiefs in this religion. But 
even if it be so, approach and sacrifice, so that thy master 
may be quit of the accusation of the law." The noble 
woman said, "How has this entered into the desire of 
my mind? He also ofttimes constrained me to eat of 
what was sacrificed, and has tortured me with many 
scourgings, but the love of the Christ my master is 
stronger in grace, more than the torments of the wicked 
(man). And because my parents laid hold of the 
divine teaching which was preached by Paul the Apostle, 
Rom. viii. for he said, ' Who shall separate us from the love of the 
Christ? shall tribulation, or anguish, or persecution, or 
nakedness, or the sword ? ' And because they laid hold of 
these things, they confessed the Christ, and believed that 
neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor 

L. E. M 

go MARY. 

f. 103 b things present, nor any other creature can separate us from 
the love of God, which is in Jesus Christ our Lord. As I 
also say the truth, and I lie not, my conscience, which is 
Christ, bearing me witness, that I depart from this world 
a Christian." Mary said, "Will thy torturers continue to 
the end, as they have but a short time? Therefore do 
what thou wilt, for I have the Christ, the Saviour of my 


And when the judge had heard this he commanded 
that they should strip her and prepare her for the 
tortures. And when many people saw her, they wept 
bitterly and shed tears with sobs, and they cried out 
against the governor, saying that he should show her a 
little patience. But the governor was not willing to 
be persuaded, but decreed that they should torture the 
blessed one. And again the bystanders cried out against 
the governor, "Thou judgest wickedly; thou art going 
beyond the law/' 

And when the governor heard the voice he was 
astonished. It appeared to him that it was not only men 
who were crying, but also the buildings were wailing. And 
he commanded the lictors who were standing there not to 
keep her. And he said to the people who were present, 
"Wherefore are ye making a tumult, and resisting the 
commands of the Emperors? Is it not right for us to 
hearken unto the commands of the Emperors ? " 

They all answered as with one mouth, saying, "The 
judges of the province, the victorious Emperors, command 
f. 104 a with gentleness and persuasiveness that men should be led 
forward to sacrifice. But if they do not obey, they are to 
die by the sword. Now if she does not obey, command 
concerning her that she die by the sword. And we request 
this, that three days be given to her, so that perhaps she 
may be persuaded, and fulfil the law of the Emperors." 
The judge said, "Do ye persuade her, for, lo! ye have 

MARY. 91 

seen that she was not in the least persuaded by me." 
The interpreter said, " What dost thou say, Mary, if three 
days be given to thee, wilt thou sacrifice?" ' 

Mary answered, " My helper from of old was the Lord." 
The judge said, " I give thee a respite of three days, and 
I swear by all the gods that if thou art so stubborn again 
thou shalt die by a variety of tortures." The noble woman 
said, " Only one thing do I ask of thee, that my master 
shall be held blameless, and shall be liberated, as innocent, 
from the judgment" The governor said, "He shall be 
liberated blameless ; and thou, if thou wilt be persuaded, 
shalt receive gifts, and shalt find freedom, which is a great 
thing among men." Mary said, "As the Christ liveth, 
He who hath given me all freedom, and in whom I trust." 

Then he commanded that she should be kept carefully 
without dishonour. And the blessed one descended 
from [before] the tribunal and signed herself with purity. 
And she ran actively and lifted up her eyes to 
Ps. cxxi. i heaven and prayed, saying, " I will lift up mine eyes 
unto the mountains, from whence my helper shall come. 
My help cometh from before the Lord, who made 
heaven and earth." And suddenly she saw wonderful f, 104 b 
things ; the heavens which were opened and troops of the 
angels and the archangels standing, and the prophets, and 
the apostles, and the martyrs, and the confessors, and 
amongst them she saw Thekla her sister. And then she 
saw the cherubim and the seraphim and the Son of God 
on the right hand of His Father. And thus the noble 
woman rejoiced, as one who has just entered through the 
gate of Paradise. But as for her persecutors their limbs 
became weak, and they fell, because of the help of the 
Lord, which accompanied His handmaiden. But many 
others were pursuing her. And when they surrounded 
her on every side she cried with a loud voice, saying, 
" Lord Jesus the Christ, Thou art He who came down to 

92 MARY. 

the fiery furnace in Babylon and rescued the three young 
men from the fire. And Thou art He who didst shut the 
mouth of the lions and rescued Daniel Thy servant, and 
didst lift him out of the lions' den unharmed. Also Thou 
didst deliver Jonah from the sea and from the belly of the 
fish, and Thou didst bring him up in three days. Thou, 
Lord Jesus, didst give light to the blind, and didst give 
hearing to the deaf. Thou wast the Healer of all sufferers, 
and the expectation of all the righteous. Thou art He, 
Lord, who didst hear the voice of the blood of Abel, and 
didst avenge him of Cain his brother. Thou art He, Lord, 
who wast present with Joseph, and didst deliver him from 
being slain by his brothers. Thou art He, Lord, who didst 
come, and art about to come to judge the quick and the 
dead. Redeemer of Thy handmaid! Jesus the Christ! 
hearken to my voice, and receive my soul ; for dogs have 
compassed me about Deliver not Thine handmaid into 
the hands of those who hate Thee. Thou, Lord, art the 
Mediator between God and man. Hear, Lord, the voice 
of Thy handmaiden, and redeem me according to the 
plenteousness of Thy mercy." 

And when she had finished her prayer, the rock before 
her was cleft, and it opened its bosom for [her] deliverance 
f. 105 a like a foster-mother for her son ; and it treasured up the 
bride of the Christ in its bosom. And the great crowd 
who were there went round about like blind people seeking 
for her. And when they came to that rock they found 
on the top of it something like three finger-breadths of 
the corner of her veil, and the fringes which were visible. 
And they returned and informed the governor of what 
had happened. 

And the governor, in a great rage, commanded a 
certain man wbose name was Placimus, the ruler of the 
city, to go to that place with a great many people, and to 
quarry the rock, and to dig deep in the earth, until they 

MARY. 93 

should find the blessed one. And when Placimus had 
received this commandment, he ordered the herald to cry 
aloud in the city and to say, " All ye citizens ! assemble 
yourselves, and gather at the appointed time, and come ; 
and let us take vengeance for our goddess." And when 
they were all assembled in the temple of the idols, he 
commanded them to take iron tools that they might dig 
the place with them. And when they were all assembled, 
and were ready to go and work, suddenly there was light- 
ning from the east, and fearful thunder, and a great earth- 
quake, and there appeared two terrible horsemen descending 
as it were from heaven to earth ; and their lances were like 
burning lamps, and at the same moment many fell down 
through fright and died. And those who remained were 
chased by them as far as the door of the idol-temple. But 
when Placimus arrived at the door he also suddenly fell and 
died. And fire came down from heaven and burnt up the f. 105 b 
house and the idols, and many of the wicked people were 
burnt. And those who died were, with those who were 
burnt, two thousand seven hundred In number. And those 
who were left fled to the city, and they crkd, saying, " Great 
is Mary's God and great is the God of the Christians, and 
He is God in truth." 

And they ran in a crowd and went into the church, 
seeking mercy from God, for the wicked things which they 
had done. And three thousand souls from amongst them 
believed on that day. And in the days of the martyrdom of 
the blessed Mary the persecution of the Christians ceased 1 . 

Here endeth the martyrdom of the blessed and noble 
Mary, and she conquered in the conflict with the wicked 

1 The Sinai Palimpsest adds : * May the Lord grant to us to find mercy 
in the judgment, in the place where there shall be a recompence to the 
righteous, (and) shame to the sinners, by the grace and mercy of our Lord 
Jesus the Christ. With Him also to His Father be glory and honour with the 
Holy Ghost for ever." 


AGAIN, the story of Saint Irene. 
In the six hundredth and twenty-first year of the reign 
of Licinius, king of the city of Magedo, an only daughter 
was born to him, and he called her name Penelope. And 
when she was six years old her father and mother consulted 
as to how they should shut her up, and in what place there 
f. io6a should be a retreat where she might learn [her] letters, until 
she should come to full stature and arrive at a marriageable 
age, so that the wedding-feast might take place when she 
should emerge from the retreat. And they proposed to 
build a castle outside of the city and to surround it with a 
strong wall; and that Apellianus, her secretary, should 
mount with ropes by means of the contrivances of an 
engine of the artificers to her own high window in the 
castle ; and whilst he sat outside there were curtains hung 
between him and the maiden, [and] he was to teach her 
letters. Licinius the king agreed on these things with 
his wife. And they began at once to the work, and he 
commanded and the artificers came, and he set the men 
to work immediately. And he appointed three hundred 
overseers who made the slaves and the builders work. 
And five thousand skilful carpenters to prepare wooden in- 
struments, and two thousand stone-cutters, men who were 
to cut stones from the mountain, and three thousand carts 
which were to carry the stones. For the king was eager and 
hurried the workmen to finish the castle in nine months. 

But when they had begun the work, the building 
progressed chiefly through the insistence of the king 


who was beside them. And when the castle was completed, 
with its ornamentation, and its beauty, and everything 
suitable to it, the king desired to have a dedication festival 
for it ; and he sent and invited five neighbour kings, and 
they came at the appointed time with their armies, and 
with a great endless crowd accompanying them. 

And when the king saw the great crowd, he commanded f. io6b 
that five thousand oxen should be slaughtered, and ten 
thousand sheep ; and these kings and their armies enjoyed 
themselves for thirty days; and at the end of three days 
every man departed to his home. And the kings and their 
armies went one by one to his city. 

But afterwards the king called for his daughter and 
said to her, affectionately, " My daughter, I have built a 
castle for thee, adorned with all beautiful things; elegant 
in its loveliness, very wonderful in its aspect, glorious in its 
appearance, firm in its foundations, and strong in its walls, 
and superb in its apartments, loftier than all work, an 
astonishment to its beholders; wonderful in its construction, 
impregnable and invincible to men, that cannot be over- 
thrown by giants. Now therefore, my beloved daughter, 
I wish to shut thee up there in that castle for a fixed term 
of years, until thou shalt come to full stature, and arrive at 
thy wedding-day. Do not murmur then, my daughter, 
and let there be no anxiety in thy heart, and let not fear 
dwell in thy mind For, lol I have commanded that 
ninety-eight gods shall mount thither with thee and take 
care of thee. For 1 will set up seven gods in each chamber 
of the castle, that the evil one and his power may not rule 
there, nor trouble thy childhood. Be not therefore anxious, 
for, lo!. I have made everything that is beautiful for thy 
comfort : my beloved daughter." 

But when the king's daughter heard these things from 
her father, she lifted up her voice with weeping, and said f. 107 a 

96 IRENE. 

to her father with bitter tears, "Thou art shutting me up 
alive, my father, within the gates of Hades, whence I 
shall never go out ; and I shall never again hear the sweet 
voice of my mother nor of other women. I shall not 
see the sun, nor the moon, nor shall I contemplate the 
brilliancy of heaven, nor the stars. My eye shall not 
delight in the birds of the air, I shall not distinguish 
between day and night in my prison-house whilst I am in 
it. I shall raise my [voice] to heaven. Never again shall 
I walk on the earth, I shall not even need a shoe, except 
for ornament Forasmuch as I cannot take a walk, what 
can it profit me? Affliction and anxiety come upon me 
from all sides. My father ! I shall never again see children 
like myself, of my own age. Henceforth I renounce all 
created things. Forasmuch as I shall suffer in Hades and 
in the grave, whence I shall never go out, truly my 
beloved parents will weep for me with sobs and even with 

And when she had said these things there was great 
weeping and much mourning in the house of the king. And 
also the faces of all his servants wore a look of sadness. 

But when the queen, the mother of the girl, saw her 
daughter, and heard these words from her, she rose in haste 
and went hurriedly to the girl, and threw her arms round 
her neck, and embraced her weeping. And she said to the 
f. 107 b king with anxious tears, and with bitterness of heart, 
* I shall not leave my daughter. I will go to the grave 
with her and be imprisoned in Hades. I will die with her, 
and I will live with her/ 1 

And it came to pass, on a certain day in the palace of 
her father, that at the turn of the day the king dismissed 
all those who were coming in and going out from his 
presence ; and he led his daughter and went to the castle 
which he had built ; he and his daughter and a great crowd 

IRENE. 97 

of the magnates of the city with him. And he took his 
daughter up to that castle and her thirteen handmaidens 
with her for her honour and for service. And he took up a 
throne and her chairs, and a dining-table and a candlestick ; 
and all the vessels for her service with her ; and her orna- 
ments, and her trinkets, and her crowns, all of gold, and 
emeralds, and pearls; eleven changes of raiment of all 
colours ; of linen, and silk, and purple. And afterwards the 
king and the queen kissed the girl and went out. And they 
left her in peace, they and the magnates of the city, whilst 
the slaves and the handmaidens were weeping like people 
who are mourning and grieving for a dead person at 
the grave. 

Then the king commanded and they shut the outer 
doors of the castle and he sealed them with his signet ring, 
and he commanded that they were not to be opened until 
the time arrived for his daughter to be betrothed to a 
husband. But the king had made the castle as a pavilion 
because he feared lest the sun should look upon the 
girl's beauty and blacken her colour with its heat And f. 108 a 
when he had shut the doors and sealed them he entered 
the city, and set guards over the castle outside its walls, 
one thousand five hundred men, that they might keep 
watch continually by day and by night. 

But during all the days of her imprisonment Apellianus 
her secretary came to teach her letters. And the guards 
drew him up with the ropes of the machine to the highest 
window of the castle. And he sat outside and taught her 
letters, never seeing her face. 

But the girl, the daughter of the king, meditated in the 
castle when she was six years old, and she was there six 
years and three months, and at the end of this period the 
king's daughter saw as in a dream that the window on the 
east side of the castle was opened, and she saw that a 
L. B. N 

98 IRENE. 

dove entered from it carrying an olive-leaf in its mouth, 
and it set it on the table in front of her bed and went 
out. And afterwards she saw again an eagle entering by 
the same window and carrying in its mouth a wreath 
adorned with all flowers, and it also set it on that table 
and went out And she again saw a raven carrying a 
wriggling serpent, and it set it upon the table and went 
out And she saw these things and called out for her 
[confidante] and they took refuge with each other out of 

But on the morning of the day her secretary came as 
usual to teach her letters. And she related to him all the 
f. 108 b signs and wonders which she had seen. Her teacher said 
to her, " Do the objects which the birds of heaven laid upon 
the table remain there until now?*' But she said to him, 
" No, we saw them only in the vision ; and they were taken 
away immediately from before my eyes." And the teacher 
was filled with the inspiration 1 of the Spirit, and he said 
to her: "Hearken, O daughter of the king! The dove 
which thou hast seen is the doctrine of the teaching of the 
Wisdom of God: and the olive-leaf is the grace of the 
Christ, and it announces the opening of the baptismal font 
And the eagle is a great and powerful king, and the wreath 
which it carried in its mouth, adorned with all flowers, is 
the vocation which hath called thee to the espousals of the 
Heavenly Bridegroom, and the perfection which is com- 
pleted by faith. And the raven is Satan the weak and 
crafty one, [who is] also the tempter 2 of the righteous ; and 
the serpent which he carried in his mouth is affliction and 
anxiety, misery and tumult, and persecutions. Therefore 
hearken, oh queen and daughter of the king ! to what I 
tell thee. Thou art called to the city of the great and 
Heavenly King; and thou sh^lt be hidden under the 
shadow of His wings. Thou shalt surely see much afflic- 

1 Literally " teaching." 2 Literally temptation." 

IRENE. 99 

tion upon earth. And thy father and thy mother shall 
deliver thee up to thine enemies ; and thy father himself 

shall be a and persecutor to thee; and shall meditate 

evil, and not good, against thee. But why do I talk much 
with thee ? for, lo ! a man of God shall be sent to thee, an f. 109 a 
angel of peace from the presence of the mighty King of 
Heaven, and he will teach thee all that is necessary to 
thee." And when her secretary had said these things to 
her, he descended from her presence at the time when he 
was accustomed to do so. 

Now at the dawn of day the king said to the queen, 
" The day has arrived for the wedding-feast of our daughter. 
Let us go and see her face ; for the day of the marriage is 

And the king and queen arose and went both of them 
to the castle ; and the king called his daughter. And she 
stooped down ; and he saw that her face was shining and 
lovely like the radiance of the sun. Then he was filled 
with a great joy and said to his daughter, " My daughter, 
the day of thy wedding has arrived. Tell me therefore, my 
daughter, that I may tell 1 the time and the place to those 
who are entering and who are going out ; and that I may 
appoint and make known the date of thy wedding-feast ; 
and that one of the sons of a king who shall please thee, 
and shall enliven thy soul, let him be thy betrothed." 

His daughter said to him, " My father, have patience 
with me for a single week 2 , and I will take counsel with my 
thoughts ; and then after the lapse of a week 3 I will tell 

And when the king had heard the speech of his 
daughter, he was persuaded by her, and said, "As thou 
wilt, my daughter, be it unto thee." 

Then he left her and went into the town rejoicing and 
with exulting mind. Now after her father had left her and 
1 Literally "give." 2 Literally "one week of days." 


had gone into the city, she drew nigh arid spoke to the 
gods the idols those which had been set up there beside 
her. And she curtsied before them, and said to them, 
u If ye be gods, hearken to my voice, [regarding] what I 
say to you. Give me back an answer and teach me the true 
f. 109 b thing that will help. My father will constrain me to be 
given to an husband. But I have accustomed myself to 
the solitude of widowhood, and to the humility of sterility, 
and to the desolateness of orphanhood. Verily the 
wedding-feast of the world leadeth away from the truth 
and it is an obstacle in the presence of the Lord." 

She said again to the idols, "If ye be gods, tell me 
beforehand. Shall I be given to a husband, or no?' 
And she saw that there was no voice, nor any one that 
listened, nor any who gave her an answer. And she 
turned herself to the eastern window and she looked at the 
sky, and she prayed and said, " Lord of the heaven and of 
the earth, and of the seas, and of all that creepeth in them, 
if Thou art God the Almighty, Jesus the Christ, the Son of 
the Living God, He whom the Galileans have preached, 
if it is proper for me to make a transitory wedding-feast 
for myself, and to be given to a mortal man, and a bride- 
groom who will perish; show me plainly Thy divinity." 
And when she had said this she sang praises to God. 

On that night she lifted up her eyes, and saw the angel 
of the God standing beside her, clothed in white. And 
when she saw him, she was sore afraid, and her mind 
was perturbed. And when the angel saw that she was 
afraid 3 , he said to her, "Peace be unto thee, fear not, for 
behold! thou hast found mercy and grace before God. 
And I have been sent to thee to show thee and to teach 
thee the things to come. And henceforth thy name 
shall no more be called Penelope, but Irene, which, being 
noa interpreted, is Peace. And thou shalt be a strong tower 

1 Literally "that fear had fallen upon her." 


against all the tricks of the crafty one; and many 
men shall find a refuge with thee, and shall repent and 
believe in God for thy sake; a thousand three hundred 
and thirty thousand people, men, women and children. 
And everything that Apellianus thy teacher has said to 
thee he said well, about those birds which thou hast seen, 
and what they carried and laid upon thy table. He spoke 
justly, for the Holy Spirit spake by him and prophesied, 
and that man is not far from the kingdom of God. For 
a man of God shall come to thee from Paul the Apostle, 
a skilful doctor of the church of God. And he shall have 
a letter on (his person) and he will read it in thy presence, 
and will teach thee the faith and the religion of God ; and 
he will baptize thee in the name of the Father, and the 
Son, and the Holy Ghost. Surely an angel of God . will 
accompany him, and will break down the castle, and he 
will enter thy presence and baptize thee in the name of the 
Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost. And after thy 
baptism power and strength will be given to thee, with 
fortitude and the wisdom of God. And thou shalt have 
purity from guilt, with the remission of sins." 

And the angel went up from her to heaven. And 
afterwards the blessed lamb of the Christ remained re- 
joicing and exulting in her mind and praising God for all 
that she had heard from the angel. And she was looking 
for the arrival of Timothy that she might be baptized by 
him, and might receive the sign of the Christ. And on 
the following day there came to her the holy priest 
Timothy, accompanied by an angel of God, and said to 
her, "What is thy care, my daughter, [because of which] f. nob 
I am come to thee to-day?" 

And she said, "It is well that thou art come, my 
father and lord, for it is the time that my sins should be 
remitted, and my transgressions and faults should be 

102 IRENE. 

blotted out by thy coming, in peace, and that I should 
obtain salvation in God." And when the holy priest 
Timothy had heard these words he gave thanks, and 
blessed the oil and the water ; and he baptized her in the 
name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost; her, 
and the thirteen handmaidens who were with her, whom 
her father had given to her for her service. And after she 
and her handmaidens had been baptized that holy priest 
taught them the faith and the fear of God. And the 
angel who was with him was taken away. 

And the blessed lamb of the Christ blessed and praised 
God without ceasing. And she turned to those senseless 
idols of the gods and said to them, "I entreated and 
besought you to tell me the truth, and ye did not tell me. 
Now therefore, if ye are gods, stand up for yourselves. 
jer. x. ii For the gods who did not make the heaven and the earth 
shall perish from beneath the heaven." And she obtained 
power and strength and heroism. And she lifted these 
idols with power, and flung them from the eastern window, 
f. ma to the ground below, saying to them, "Stand up your- 
selves, if you can, and help yourselves by your own power, 
for ye were not able to do anything to help me." 

But they were greatly smashed by [their] fall from 
the great height, and they were ground to pieces like salt, 
and became as dust. 

But when the appointed period of seven days had come 
to an end the king Licinius went to the castle to see his 
daughter. And he called her and said to her, "My 
daughter, behold the appointed period of seven days is 
finished, as thou didst say, according to thy wish, and 
what dost thou say?" 

Then all the great men who were with him said to him, 
"O king, mayst thou live for ever! Let thy majesty 
command and bring down the maiden from the castle, and 


bring her into the city, and there will we delight ourselves 
with her beauty; and she shall be in the palace of the 

Then when she had heard [it], she said, " After I have 
entered the palace of the Heavenly King and have dwelt 
in it ; and have delighted in the seal and in the espousals 
of Jesus the Christ, the Son of the Living God, shall 
I leave Him and enter a palace of human weeping and 
full of sin ? " " Be it far from thee ," said the nobles to her. 
" From what thou speakest perhaps thou art a Christian ? " 
She said to them, u Now you certainly know that I am the 
handmaid of the Christ and the bride of Jesus. For behold 
all the week that I was baptized these were the days of 
my wedding-feast and of the joy of my nuptials. Oh ! do 
ye not see the destruction of your gods, and if they did not 
help themselves when they were hurled down from above, 
how can they help you ? Truly ye cherish a vain and empty f. 1 1 1 b 
hope in them. For all the gold and silver that ye possess, 
which ought to be given to the orphans, and to the widows, 
and to the needy, and to the oppressed in spirit, ye have 
called for the goldsmiths, and have given it to them ; and 
by their skill they have made you artificial gods ; and ye 
have worshipped them, and have given to unsavoury 
demons and to dead idols the adoration which was due to 
God. They have eyes, but they see not; they have ears, PS.CXV. 5 
but they hear not ; and there is no breath in their mouth. 
They that make them shall be like unto them, and every 
one that trusteth in them. Therefore ye are the oppressors 
of tlje orphans and of the widows, and spoilers of the poor 
and of the unfortunate ; and the enemies of righteousness ; 
and aliens from God ; fornicators and adulterers ; deceivers 
and deniers of God. Repent and turn to the living God. 
Know ye the merciful God who is able to kill and to 
make alive; to bring [down] to Sheol and to bring up 

104 IRENE. 

[again]. Turn ye to God, while there is room, before the day 
of doom cometh, and ye fall into the judgment of righteous- 
ness. Hearken to me, my own father, for my word is to 
thee I know what I say to thee. When thou didst begin 
to build this castle, thou didst build it with many people 
there was no end to them and by thy presence which 
was with them at every moment Thou didst finish it in 
nine months, with its ornaments and with all its de- 
corations ; and thou wert praised amongst men and lauded 
for thy work. But our adored God made the heaven and 
the earth and the seas, and all that moveth in them in six 
1 1 12 a days ; He made the sun and the moon and the stars, and to 
all of them He gave names. He created the mountains 
and the hills and the valleys and the plains. He created 
every tree whose seed 1 is in itself on the earth. And on 
the completion of these things He formed man in His own 
image and in His likeness ; and clothed him with brightness 
and made him lord and ruler over all the brutes and the 
beasts, and the creeping things and the flying things, and 
subjected all these creatures to Him ; and He created them 2 
all by His word ; and that was our Lord Jesus the Christ ; 
He whom the Jews have crucified; He who has been 
persecuted by the unjust people, and He was taken, and 
was scourged, and was crowned with a crown of thorns, 
and was crucified, and He tasted the vinegar and the gall 
on the cross ; which sweetened our bitterness ; He died 
and was buried ; and in three days He rose by the Divine 
power which dwelt in Him. And He was exalted and 
taken up to Heaven to His Father. And He sat down on 
the right hand of Him who sent Him. And the cherubim 
bear His throne, and the seraphim stand before Him, and 
He is worshipped by the hosts of Heaven. He it was 

1 Or "power of germinating," see Gen. i. 29. 

2 Literally "all these creatures." 

IRENE. 10$ 

who in six days created and made everything by His 
word. This light hath dawned on the earth, and those who 
are sitting in darkness and in the shadow of death have 
seen His light. And the truth ran upon the earth; the 
sick were healed; the afflicted were comforted; even 
the diseased were cured; the lepers were cleansed; the 
demons were cast out; the palsied were made whole; 
the [eyes of the] blind were opened ; and the dead were 
raised up : and souls were saved and the lost were found ; f. ii2b 
and the erring turned back; and the sinners repented; 
and the righteous rejoiced; and debts were prolonged; 
transgressions were forgiven ; the baptismal font was opened 
and many were baptized ; the impure were made holy, and 
1 the earth rejoiced ; Heaven exulted ; the hosts of heaven 
sangj and shouted, saying, * Glory be to God in the highest, 
and good will to all men ; by the will of the Living God.' Luke ii. 
Thou therefore, my father, hast been praised and glorified I4 
by men for a small and ttansitory work; and thou hast 
not thyself searched and wondered and confessed and 
glorified Him who in six days made all these things and 
created the creatures; nor our Lord Jesus the Christ, 
He who extended His grace upon the earth ; and filled 
creation with His peace. And to the Living Spirit, who is 
the Holy Paraclete, who calleth all men to the kingdom of 

And when the blessed Irene had said these things to her 
father, Licinius returned her an answer, saying, " I have had 
great patience with thy speech, my daughter, on account of 
thy sweet grace, because for years I have heard thy voice ; 
and sweet to me is the sound of thy sentences. Therefore 
let us go into the city. And thou hast told me what thou 

Then the king and his nobles led the blessed Irene and 
went into the city. But the queen her mother followed 
L. E. o 


f. 113 a after her daughter bent in person, and she lifted the dust 
from beneath the feet of her daughter. And she applied it 
to her eyes and on her body, saying, " May this dust from 
beneath the holy feet of my beloved daughter be to me 
rest and healing, and for the redemption of my life and for 
the remission of sins, and for the new eternal life." And 
all the people who saw her, did likewise. And the king 
turned round, and saw [it], and commanded that no man 
should hinder them. 

And when the blessed one had entered the city the 
magnates and the patricians and the patrician ladies came 
out to meet her, and they did obeisance to her, because 
they saw that she was lovely. But the plebeians and the 
poor people could not see her because of the great crush ; 
for they were longing greatly to see her ; and were running 
to the high places and standing, and studying her beauty 
from thence. And everyone who saw her was filled with 
great joy, as if they had already beheld the face of an 
angel And when she came to enter by the door of her 
father's palace, a certain vicious demon met her, and said 
to her, " What is there between me and thee, thou hand- 
maid of Jesus ? Get thee out of this city, for no Christian 

f. 113 b can dwell in it" But the blessed Irene said to that demon, 
" Who art thou ? and what is thy name ? " The demon 
said, " Nargium is our name. And I guard this city, and 
many people are mine. I am the first charioteer of the 
gods; and I rejoice in quarrels, and exult in slaughter. 
And I excite disputes, and I rejoice in the shedding of 
blood. I supply the wizards, and enchain many by means 
of them. I am the father and the originator of all 
evils. T am the rock of adamant on which all the souls of 
the wicked shall be dashed Now I have made known to 
thee my power and my courage. Therefore get thee away 
from the city, lest thou be angry, and I go to thy father, 
and ruin thee also," 


Irene answered, " I say to thee, vile demon, and rabid 
imp, In the name of our Lord Jesus the Christ, it is not 
lawful for thee to be in this city, nor to ruin nor to hurt 
any one of its inhabitants. Therefore begone! lest I 
destroy thee in the name of Jesus." 

But he, when he heard the glorious name of Jesus, fled 
in fear and trembling, and went out of the city astonished. 
And as he was going out, he approached the king and 
whispered in his ear, saying to him, " If thou art mine, 
Licinius, be strong and of good courage ; for thy daughter 
is mixed up with the error of the Christians/' And when 
he had said this, he went out of the city shaking and 
howling. And at the dawn of day the king called to the f. 114 a 
queen and said to her, " What shall we do, for our daughter 
is mixed up with the error of the Christians ? " 

The queen said, "Why dost thou think that our 
daughter is certainly in error? Be it far from her! let 
it not be! for our daughter has not erred and does not 

The king said, " She confesses the Christ and denies 
the gods, does she not surely err?" 

The queen said, " But the gods who did not make the 
heaven and the earth, how are they gods? I also say let 
them perish from beneath the sky. I disown them and 
those who worship them. Peace be to our daughter, and 
glory be to the Christ, who hath called her to immortal 

Then the king was terribly angry, and he commanded 
that they should put the queen out of the palace ; and that 
she should remain out of it But one of the maidens ran 
and told Irene, "Thy father hath chased thy mother 
away because of thee." But when she heard it she said to 
the handmaiden, " Fear not, for beside me my father has 
the strength of an ant" 

108 IRENE. 

And the blessed one rose in haste, and went to the 
palace of her father, that she might enter his presence with 
all speed. But many of the magnates and of the king's 
servants prevented her and tried to persuade her not to do 
so 1 , for they said to her, " Do not shew thyself to-day to 
thy father; because he is growling 2 like a lion to destroy 
thee." But when the blessed one heard it she laughed 
again and said: "As my Lord and my God Jesus liveth 
f. 114 b to-day and at this moment I will see him! " 

Now when they heard a knock at the king's door, they 
went in and made it known to the king, saying, "Thy 
daughter is standing without and desires to enter thy 
presence and see thee." When the king had heard it, he 
commanded her to enter. And the holy Irene entered 
and stood before her father. And when he saw her, he 
bent his head 8 down, and gazed on the ground in the 
anger of his mind. For he could not bear to look at her 
in the wrath of his heart. When Irene saw it, she said, 
" Why art thou of sad countenance to-day, my father, and 
not as usual. Thou hast one only daughter ; and lo ! she 
is standing before thee. Whereabouts in the palace is the 
queen, my mother and mistress dwelling ? Is she well ? " 

But he did not answer her a word. Irene said, "Whence 
hath this anxiety [come] to thee, my father? And I do 
not know my own parent by reason of his sad countenance." 
And the king said, " Would that I had not begotten thee, 
my daughter! then I would not have fallen into this 
anxiety on thy account I made a famous castle for thy 
sake; and I adorned it with all beautiful things; and I 
surrounded it with a strong wall; and I placed guards 
over ft and I set up ninety-eight gods in it for thy glory 
and that they might protect thee. And I gave a table and a 

1 Literally "to enter his presence.*' 

2 Literally "gnashing." * Literally "face." 

IRENE. 109 

candelabrum and a throne and all the vessels for thy service 
of wrought gold, and crowns of emeralds and gold, also 
pearls. I made thy dresses of all colours, of fine linen and 
of silk, and of spun gold, and all of them were beautiful. 
And hast thou repaid me for them, my daughter ? " Irene 
said, "But what evil have I done to thee, my father?'' 
The king said, " Is it a little thing to me, this anxiety and f. 115 a 
wrong which thou hast caused to me and hast repaid me 
[with] ? Thou hast confessed the Christ, and hast believed 
in Jesus, and hast denied the gods/' 

Irene said, "That is not a wrong to thee, my father, 
that I have believed in the Christ Nor again is it an 
anxiety to thee that I confess Jesus. I am hurting thee in 
nothing. For I rely on the Lord Jesus that thou also wilt- 
soon confess and believe in the Christ And I know not 
why thou art anxious." 

The king said : " My beloved daughter Penelope, is it 
thy wish that I should not be anxious?" "Yes," said 
Irene. "Sacrifice to the gods," said the king. 

Irene said, "My father, do not twist thy tongue, nor 
call me Penelope; do not change my name, for it is not 

" And what is thy name ?" said the king to her. 

Then she said : " Irene is my name, for by that nanae 
my betrothed and my God called me when I was in that 
castle which thou didst build for me." 

But when the king heard it he was extremely angry, 
and said, " I renounce this child, artful for evil and not 
for good, and would that thou hadst never been ! w Then 
the king commanded his magnates to take her away to the 
circus ; and to bind her with ropes and throw her down 
and cause chariots with horses to run over her ; that she 
might die by the trampling of horses and the wheels. And 
the servants of sin led her at once ami bore her to the 

1 10 IRENE. 

circus. And with weeping and bitter tears they brought 
her near the place in which there was to be an end to her 
f. n$b life. And after these things the king arose and went out 
of the palace to go to the circus and see the death of his 
daughter. And one of the noble horses who were there 
who had been made chief of the stable, cut the ropes of his 
halter and destroyed the stall in which he was standing and 
ran straight on the king and bit him and he fell down and 
died. And it seized his right arm and carried it away 
from his shoulder, and he fell and died And it returned 
and stood in its stall where it had been standing. And 
suddenly there was much mourning and weeping in the 
king's house. But as for that horse to it was given the 
speech of man, for the glory of God. And it spoke and 
said thus: "Blessed art thou, Irene, handmaid of God, and 
blessed art thou among women. Thou hast been delivered 
into the hands of the wicked upon the earth, and in heaven 
thine espousals and their adornment are prepared. Thou 
hast wept upon earth, and in paradise thou shalt be em- 
braced by the sweetness of heaven. Here thou art afflicted, 
but thou shalt be made splendid beyond the splendour of 
light Thou art hated by many upon earth, but thou shalt 
stand and be glorified beside Jesus thy betrothed. Blessed 
be thou and blessed be thy soul." 

Now when the horse had said these things, they led the 
horses and brought them down to the circus. But that 
horse remained apart from them; because by reason of 
its strength they were unable to bring it down with its 
companions ; and because they were afraid that it might 
kill them, like the king. Now it had happened to the 
blessed Irene that they had bound her with ropes according 
to the commandment of the king, and all the horses came 
and knelt down and did obeisance before her. And all 
. n6a the people were amazed at this wonder. And suddenly 


her fetters were loosed from her ; and they saw it and 
glorified God. And in that hour the servants of the king 
came and said to her, " A horse has bitten thy father and 
he is dead ; and behold ! he is thrown on the ground, and 
his arm is taken off." 

And she said : " Fear not, he is not really dead, but is 
sleeping and this that has happened was for the glory of 
God. Ye also shall see [it,] and believe in God." 

And when the great crowd heard that the king was 
dead, grief and sorrow overspread their mind ; and they 
came and fell down before the feet of the blessed one, and 
did obeisance to her; and they persuaded her saying, 
" Lady, take pity on thy father who is dead ; and it is 
grievous to thee, for his hand, too, has been taken away, 
and thrown aside." 

And the blessed Irene came and stood over the corpse 
of her father. And all the people wondered ; for they left 
off their mourning for the dead king, and were amazed at 
the speech of the horse and at the loosening of its bonds. 

The holy Irene said : " Bring the hand that was cut off 
close to the place from which it was cut. And make it 
touch the place." And they did accordingly. Then Irene 
turned to the East, and lifted up her eyes 1 and her hands to 
heaven. And she prayed, with weeping and sobs, to God, 
saying, " God the Father in heaven, who hast established 
the foundations of the earth; Thou Rock that never movest, 
and fortress that never dost capitulate, Sun of Righteousness 
and path of life, and Way of salvation, who sittest on the 
right hand of Him who sent thee, O Lord, my God and my 
betrothed, Jesus the Christ, Son of the Living God, Thou 
who callest sinners to repentance, that they may turn to 116 b 
the knowledge of the truth and not perish, Merciful and 
Pitiful One, hearken to my voice, and look on the humble 
1 Literally "glance." 

112 IRENE. 

estate of Thy handmaiden. May Thy strong power come 
from heaven on this dead man and raise him up, that this 
crowd may see these things and believe and glorify Thy 
holy name ; and know that Thou art the Lord of the heaven 
and of the earth, and the Redeemer of all men who believe 
in Thee." 

And when she had finished her prayer, the soul of that 
dead man entered into him, and he lived, and arose, and sat 
up. And his daughter turned and saw him ; and she went 
up to him and took him with her hands and set him up, 
saying to him : " Rise, my father, by, the power of Jesus." 
And he arose and walked to and fro, his hand that was cut 
off being quite whole, and not a blemish being on his 

And when all the people saw it, they cried saying, 
" Great is the God of Irene and there is none but Him." 
And they believed, and turned to God : and three thousand 
people were baptized on that day. 

Then Licinius the king took his daughter by the hand, 
blessing God and saying, " Great is the triumph of thy 
victory, my daughter! and great thy promise in heaven. 
Thou art called the possession of Jesus, and the inheritance 
of the Christ ; O most fortunate of children ! consolation 
and faith of parents ! Children like thee, my daughter, are 
able to save their fathers from a painful death ! Behold ! 
I also am henceforth a Christian, and a servant of Jesus. 
And henceforth I renounce this kingdom of the world that 
117 a passeth away, and I look for the kingdom of heaven that 
passeth not away ; and I leave this kingdom to him who 
wishes to inherit it. And . I will take thy mother, my 
daughter, and I will go to the castle that I have built for 
thee ; and I also will see Jesus as thou hast seen Him ; 
and I will know Him like thee; and I will be His own 
and will seek refuge in Him. For I am unable to be king 

IRENE. 113 

inasmuch as I have confessed Jesus and have been called 
a Christian ; lest the neighbouring kings come upon me 
and destroy me from life. For I know and I believe that 
inasmuch as I have believed in Jesus, they will not be able 
to hurt me." 

Then the king took the queen, and they went away to 
the castle, and were there confessing the Christ. 

Then the blessed one remained in the city doing 
miracles, and signs of cures. And she taught the word 
of truth and instructed many; and baptized them in the 
name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit 

After these things Zedekia the king heard what had 
become of king Licinius, and of the deeds which his 
daughter had done : and he was astonished. And he took 
a great and countless army, and went to Magdu, the city 
of king Licinius : and when he entered it and alighted 
in it, he called the magnates of the city, and asked 
them, "Where is your king?" And they returned him 
an answer and said, " He is dwelling in the castle which 
he had built for his daughter, he and his wife." The 
king said, "And his daughter, is she with him?" The f. ii7b 
magnates said, "No, my lord." The king said, "And 
where doth she dwell ? Is she in the city ? " They said, 
"She dwells with Apellianus her teacher." 

And then the king sent to seek Apellianus the teacher. 
And he came, and stood in his presence. " Tell me/' said 
the king, <c thou old man, is the maiden, the daughter of 
king Licinius, with thee ? " " Yes, my lord the king," said 
Apellianus. "What is her mind?" said the king, "and 
what are her meditations ? dost thou not know ? " " Her 
thoughts and her meditations,* 1 said Apellianus, "are mine 
and those of all who fear God. For from evening till 
evening she partakes of an ounce of bread, and drinks a 
sixth part of a hemina of water. She knows not a table, 
L. E. P 

114 IRENE. 

nor is she acquainted with a bed, and neither by night nor 
by day does she cease from the praise of God, and her eye 
is never done with tears." 

And when the king heard it, he was greatly astonished. 
And at the dawn of day he sent Euphorba with ten chief 
men to king Licinius, to that castle, and they said to him, 
" O king, live for ever ! Come to our city and receive us, 
as is thy good custom. What is this that thou hast done ? 
Art thou making a trial of us? Come to thine own 

But when the magnates had said these things to Licinius 
the king, he said to them, " Go ye and say to the king who 
sent you, '0 noble king, live for ever! My kingdom is 
given unto thee.'" 

Now when king Zedekia heard these things, he went 
into the palace of king Licinius; and he took his kingdom 
f. n8a and inherited everything that he possessed. 

And on the following day king Zedekia sent his 
secretary and his great men for the maiden Irene, because 
of the honour [due to] her father. And the Hyparch and 
the magnates who were with him went to the house of 
Apellianus, to Irene ; and they said to her, " daughter 
of a king! behold the king seeks thee." 

And she arose with great joy, and went, and entered 
the king's presence, and stood before him. And when the 
king saw her, he said, " Peace be to thee ! " But she did 
not answer him a word. And after a little while she 
said to him, "Why didst thou call for me?" The king 
said, "Let us sit and talk about the peace of the city." 
Pi Li Irene said, "I will not sit with iniquitous people, nor 
will I enter into the assembly of the sinners; nor will I 
sit upon the seat of the scorners." "Am I then a sinner 
and an iniquitous man ? " said the king. Irene said, " Truly 
every one who is a pagan is wicked and iniquitous/' 

IRENE. 1 1 $ 

But when the king heard [it] he was exceedingly wroth, 
and was filled with threatenings : and he said, "Irene, 
sacrifice to the gods!" Irene said, "In vain art thou 
disturbed, O king! Satan, thy father, excites thee and 
inflames thee against me. But I do not fear thy threats ; 
because I have believed in Jesus. And He saves me from 
all thy wiles, and all thy hateful counsels concerning me 
are useless." And the king commanded them to dig a pit 
thirty cubits wide and thirty cubits deep, and to throw wild 
beasts into it, and snakes, and scorpions, and asps, and 
serpents, and vipers, and all the stinging things of Satan. 
And the servants of wickedness did accordingly. 

And the king commanded them to bring the blessed f. n8b 
Irene, and to carry her and throw her into that pit. And 
the servants of sin led her and carried her thither. And 
they said to her, weeping, "Why dost thou not sacrifice, 
O daughter of the king, and live ? but thou hast made this 
choice for thyself to die a grievous death." But she said, 
"Be silent, for ye know not what ye are saying." 

And that blessed one looked down into the pit and 
saw all the reptiles that were in it, and she said, " How 
shall I go down?" And they said, "The king has com- 
manded that thou shalt be thrown head downwards into it" 

Then Irene lifted up her hands and raised her eyes 1 
upwards, weeping; and she prayed to Jesus, saying, "O 
Lord the Christ, behold, for Thy sake I bear these things. 
And I go down into this pit [leaning] on the power of Thy 
divinity. Show Thy favour to me, O Lord, and let the 
iniquitous people and their father, Satan, be ashamed." 

And she made the sign of Jesus between her eyes, and 
on her breasts, and threw herself head downwards into the 
midst of the pit. And when she reached the bottom, all 
these reptiles ran away from before her, and stuck to the 

1 Literally, "glance." 

1 16 IRENE. 

walls of the pit ; and had stuck [to them] and died. And 
the blessed Irene opened her mouth and prayed, saying, 
" I confess to thee, O Lord, whose are the heaven and the 
earth, that Thou art from everlasting to everlasting. Thou 
hast created all men, O Lord, upon the earth. Thou didst 
send our Lord Jesus the Christ, Thy Son, and Thy Beloved, 
for the redemption of the world ; and He came and was 
f. 1 19 a born of Mary the Virgin ; and He conquered all the power 
of the enmity of Satan ; and frustrated all his wiles ; and 
He gave strength and power to those men who worship 
Him and believe in Him, that they should tread on the 
wild beasts, and the scorpions, and the serpents, and the 
vipers, and on all the stinging things of the enmity of 
Satan. And Thou hast to-day shown Thy grace towards 
the weakness of Thy handmaiden. And Thou hast slain 
all these evil reptiles by Thy strong power and Thy swift 
commandment. And Thou hast saved me by the help of 
Thy favour. I confess to Thee and I give Thee glory that 
Thou hast not overlooked my low estate. And Thy grace 
has come to my help. And Thou hast kept me as the 
apple of the eye.' 1 

And she was in the pit for fourteen days, and she took 
no nourishment. But she was fed by the Holy Spirit. 
And it was told to the king that all these evil reptiles had 
died ; and had stuck to the walls in dying. And the king 
and his magnates were greatly astonished when they heard 
it And on the following day the king called her and said 
to her, rt Irene, sacrifice to the gods ! Behold, thou hast 
killed all the reptiles, and thou art alive." 

Irene said, "O many headed Satan! is this thy question 
with me? But I ask thee, O son of deceit, tell me." 
She said, "Has the weak power of thy gods done any 
enchantments like these? or is there any power like this 
that they have killed evil reptiles? except the power of 
Jesus ?" 

IRENE. 117 

But when the king heard this, he was filled with f. n 9 b 
rage and said, " Bring me hither two carpenters and two 
saws." And they brought [them] to him as he had said. 
And he commanded them to squeeze the lamb of the 
Christ in the press of the carpenters, and to saw her in 
twain. And the servants of sin did according to the 
commandment of the king; and they squeezed her in 
the press. And they placed a saw above her head; and 
the carpenters lifted them up to saw her; and the saw 
became blunted, and did not hurt the body of the maiden. 
When the judge saw that the saw did not touch her 
body, he commanded that there should be a tall engine, 
and that they should tie her there to stakes, and saw 
her in twain. And the engine came ; and they tied the 
blessed one to it, and they placed the saw above her 
head. And they let go the saw, and in that hour the 
saw was cleft in twain; and the carpenters fell from the 
engine ; and they also were cleft and died. And the 
king saw that the two carpenters were dead, and that 
the saw was cleft And he turned towards all the people 
and said, " They have made the engine idiotically, and they 
have let the saw go suddenly, and it was cleft, and the 
engine is fallen, and they are dead. It has befallen them 
well ; for it was not right for them to meddle with a matter 
that was too difficult for them, and that they knew nothing 
about, I am free from their mistake and from their blood." 
And he commanded that there should be a saw double the 
size of the one which was cleft And they squeezed the 
blessed one again into the carpenter's. press; and began 
again to saw her. And that saw was melted like wax. 

And the believing woman laughed at their tortures and f. 120 a 
[their] sawing; and her body was not hurt, and her colour 
was not changed : and she gave glory to God. 

And when the king saw that it profited nothing, he 
commanded them to bring a great saw, and to bring a huge 

11$ IRENE. 

stone of five hundred pounds [weight] and they put it on 
her breast; and that they should saw her feet off from her 
knees. And the servants of sin did accordingly ; and they 
sawed off the feet of the blessed one. 

But she was singing praises to God with joy and with a 
loud voice. And she did not feel the pain. And when 
the king saw that the feet of the blessed one were cut off, 
he laughed, and said, " Irene, where is thy God ? let Him 
come now and deliver thee from my hands, if He can." 
Irene said, " By the life of Jesus who has redeemed me and 
is redeeming me, for there is no grace for thee." 

And the king was enraged and blasphemed God ; for 
the bystanders were afraid to weep openly in his presence 
but they wept in secret and murmured, saying, "Bitter 
are the punishments of the king and iniquitous are his com- 
mandments." For they took pity on the. beauty of the 
maiden and on her youth. 

And suddenly the air was aflame, and there were 
fearful thunderings and fierce lightnings ; and terrible 
noises and mighty voices, like none that had ever been 
before. And darkness overspread the earth, and the earth 
trembled ; and a voice of the trumpeting of angels came 
from the sky 1 . And when the king saw it, he feared greatly, 
and said, " Let us flee to the city ! let every man flee to 
f. 120 b his house!" And the king fled and those who were 
with him to get into the city. And the blessed one 
remained with her feet cut off, and that stone lying on 
her breasts. The king said, " Lift it away. Now we will 
see if the Christ will come to deliver her." And when 
they had lifted it, and all the people had fled, one of the 
harlots remained beside her whose name was Curica. She 
said to the blessed one, "I will not leave thee, thou 
handmaid of the Christ! with thee I will die, and with 
thee I will live in life eternal" 

1 Literally "air." 

IRENE. 119 

But as for the king and the great men who were with 
him who had fled, that they might go into the city, they 
imagined that he had gone before them ; justice was behind 
them bringing (him) to them. And they had come un- 
willingly, and stood beside the blessed one, and then they 
knew that God had come near on her behalf. And when 
the king saw that harlot beside her, he commanded, and 
they beheaded her with the sword. And when she was 
dying the handmaid of the Christ said, "Pray for me, 
that I may not be separated from thee." And Irene 
sealed her in the name of the Father, and the Son, and 
the Holy Spirit. And she stretched out her neck and 
received joyfully the crown of martyrdom by the sword. 
And suddenly God cast fear upon the king and upon his 
great men, and they arose affrighted and were silent in 
astonishment ; and were unable to walk hither or thither. 
Then two angels came down from heaven by the com- f. 121 a 
mandment of God, beside the virgin of the Christ, and they 
loosed her from her bonds, and rolled away the stone 
from her breasts; and took up her feet which had been 
cut off, and brought them close to the places from which 
they had been severed. And the blessed one was healed 
and arose sound in body. And they went up to heaven. 

And the handmaiden of the Christ sang praises to God 
without ceasing. And she ran and reached the city before 
the king. But a current of air followed the king and his 
magnates, it- was very cold by reason of the hail which 
had come ; and it slew three thousand men of these pagans, 
but it did not hurt the king ; because he was kept for the 
wrath to come. 

And the people who were left cried out, saying, " Truly 
great is the God of Irene, and there is none but He." And 
they called on the Lord, saying, " Have mercy upon us, 
O God ! according to Thy grace, and blot out our sins in 

120 IRENE. 

Thy compassion. Forgive us our iniquity in Thy pity, 
because our hope is in Thee ; and in Thee we take refuge." 
And on that day eight thousand souls believed. 

And the king called the damsel, and said to her, " Lo ! 
thou hast killed three thousand people with thine enchant- 
ments, and thou hast snatched away eight thousand from 
the gods. When they saw that thy feet were healed they 
believed in thy God. Now approach and sacrifice, lest thy 
life vanish miserably from the world." 

Irene said, "0 furnace of falsehood of error, son of 

Satan ! art thou not ashamed and dost thou not fear God ? 
Thou hast not laid to heart the coldness of the air which 
f. 121 b occurred. And did not trembling dwell in thy heart at the 
death of thy wicked comrades ? and didst thou not fear 
Him who saved thee from a death like theirs 1 ? For thou 
didst not escape from that death because of thy righteous- 
ness, but that the crown of my martyrdom might be 
plaited and adorned by thy hands." 

And when the king had heard (this) he was filled with 
a great rage, and he called the Eparch, and said to him, 
" Wilt thou not say by what kind of death I shall slay that 
[woman] of hateful name?" The Eparch said, "Let them 
carry her to where there is a mill ; and let them bind her 
against the spoke of the wheel ; and let them fix iron 
hooks on the ends of the spokes, and let the water on to 
the wheel. And when the force of the water shall strike 
on the wheel and it shall revolve, the hooks will take away 
from her sides, and thus the disappearance of her life from 
the world will be very grievous." And the servants of sin 
did thus, and they fixed wood against the wheel, and bound 
the virgin of the Christ to it. And they let out the water 
at the wheel, and at once the water became hard as stone, 
and did not move. And the wheel did not tremble, and 

1 Literally "from their death." 

IRENE. 121 

the body of the blessed one was unhurt. But the king and 
the magnates who were standing round him were amazed. 
And the blessed Irene laughed and said to them, mocking, 
"O mistaken people! Ye have made instruments of torture 
after your own pleasure by your commandment, and they 

do not obey you. And in vain do ye weary yourselves 

therefore do what is incumbent on you that... of forti- 
tude, and my heroism may be made known to you and 
to many." But the king and his magnates said to her, 
" Irene, why dost thou not sacrifice to the gods ? " And f. 122 a 
she said, " Because of the hour of the trumpet which will 
bring you to life." 

Then she said, "When I have truly seen dogs en- p s .xxii. 16 
compassing me, and the assembly of the wicked have 
enclosed me, as David has said, 'The wicked walk on Ps.xii.8 
every side, like the vile exaltation of the sons of Edom, 
and their words are softer than oil, yet are they Ps. Iv. 21 
javelins; their tongue is as a sharp sword; and their 
poison is like that of cruel vipers. They have compassed Ps. cxviii. 
me like hornets, they are quenched as the fire of stubble. 
Their sword shall enter into their heart, and their bows Ps. xxxvii. 
shall be broken/ O hypocrites ! hearken and understand, I5 
that the prophecy has said these things against you." 

The king said, " Irene, come, go up the ascent of the 
mill-wheel, till my mind takes counsel and my intelligence 
devises 1 tortures that are more bitter than these for thee." 
And when she had gone up, he commanded that she 
should be bound in the prison-house. And the servants 
of sin carried her and shut her up in the prison-house. 
And suddenly God cast contentions into the minds of all 
the citizens, and excited them against the king. And they 
raised a persecution against him, and the patricians and 
the plebeians of the whole city were assembled, and they 
i Literally " begets." 

L. E. Q 

122 IRENE. 

said to him, " As for thee, what art thou doing in our city ? 
and why dost thou sit in a palace which is not thine own ? 
Get thee out of our city, for thou art not our king. Long 
live our king Licinius ! " Then they stoned him and put 
him out of their city, and he went to his city. And in 
f. 122 b seven days he died, and Severon his son reigned after him. 
And twenty days after the death of his father, he assembled 
a great army, about a hundred thousand fighting men. 
And he purposed in his mind that he would go to the city 
of Magdo, and lay it waste, and avenge by its means the 
insult [done] to his father, and his death. For he went to 
that city filled with anger and rage, and he threatened 
concerning it that he would swallow it like a dragon. For 
when those citizens had heard [of it] fear fell upon them, 
and they said to Irene, " My lady, perhaps it is for thy 
sake that our city is desolate and we are dying" ; and they 
closed the gates of the city, and none might go out and 
none might enter for fear of the king ; for there were a 
hundred thousand fighting men with him, besides many 
others who were allied with him, for they came because 
of the spoiling of the city. And when the blessed one 
saw that the citizens were disturbed and were weeping, 
she said to them, " Peace be to you. Fear not I will go 
out and go on to meet him." 

But they said to her, " We implore of thee, lady, we 
shall die and our city will be laid waste ; but thou shalt 
not go out to any place; and thou shalt not go near him, 
lest he slay thee." 

But a certain faithful man was there, whose name was 
Alexander. He said to the citizens, "You are making a 
f. 123 a mistake by too great haste. This is she who has slain all 
that bad vermin by the power of God ; and she has also 
raised up her father, and she has brought down an angel 
from above by her prayer; and she has done many signs. 

IRENE. 123 

Does she fear the rustle of the wing of this locust? For 
are not his threats weak beside the strength of this valiant 
woman ? Fear not therefore." But when they heard these 
words, they opened the gates of the city and allowed her to 
go out. 

And she went and reached the king's presence. And 
she saw his numerous troops surrounding him. And she 
turned to the east and raised her hands and her eyes 1 aloft. 
And she prayed and said, " O Lord God ! whose are the 
heaven and the earth, as Thou didst hear the voice of 
Elisha the prophet, and didst strike the people with a II Kings 
phantom, show the wonder here also, and hearken to the vl ' l8 
voice of the prayer of Thy handmaid and show the power 
of Thy might this day, and strike this people with a 
phantom, and keep the light of day, from their eyes, 
because they are going to lay waste an innocent city; 
and they threaten to destroy the life of many persons." 
And when she had finished her prayer, the Lord smote 
that people with a phantom. And as for the king, his 
limbs were loosened, and his chiefs beheld that their light 5 
was taken from them. He said to Irene, " Irene, now I 
know that the power of God accompanies thee. Pray for f. 123 b 
us to thy God, and we shall see the light." 

And she bent the knee and prayed to God, and their 
eyes were opened, and they saw the light And their 
limbs also which had been loosened, were healed. And 
the king and his great men entered the city, and the 
great army that was with him ; and the blessed Irene. 
And in the morning he assembled the whole city and said 
to them persuasively, " Peace be unto you. Fear not, there 
will be no trouble to any man in your city. There is quiet 
and peace between me and you." 

1 Or "glance." 

2 The MS. adds, "And the king's limbs were loosened along with his 
being bereft of light. 7 * 

124 IRENE. 

And the next day the king said, " Call Irene to me. 
And they called her and brought her. And they said, 
" Lo ! she is standing before thy majesty." The king said, 
" Irene, I have forgiven the fault of the city, but I will not 
forgive thee, because thou wert the hateful cause of the 
stoning of my father; and he was stoned, and he died. 
Now if thou desirest that I should not requite at thy hands 
the contumely and the blood of my father, sacrifice to the 

Irene said, "Thou art cursed by God [thou] and thy 
counsel. But do not thou trifle, but turn to the counsel 
of thy father, Satan. And what he advises, do it to me 
quickly and without delay, that thou also mayest know 
the power of God that is in me." 

And the king was wroth with a very great wrath. And 
he commanded concerning her that she should be kept in 
the prison-house. And they carried her to the prison- 
house. And the king said to his great men, " With what 
torture ought we to kill her?" And they said to him what 
Satan had sown in their hearts, "Let thy majesty command 
them to bring three hundred of the best nails, and let 
them be fixed under her feet. And let sand be dropped 
into a sack and let her carry it on her shoulders. And let 
them put a muzzle in her mouth and let one of the soldiers 
lead her and conduct her for five miles, and make her 
return [for] five. With this torture she will sacrifice or die." 
f. 124 a And whilst she was in the prison, our Lord Jesus the 

Christ appeared to her, and a host of angels. And He 
said to her, " Irene, fear not, for I am with thee ; and my 
Father, with the Holy Spirit, are helping with thy struggle. 
And all the armies of heaven are helping with thy conflict. 
And even the bones of the righteous fathers delight in 
thy victory." And our Lord set His seal upon her, and 
ascended up to heaven with His holy angels. 

IRENE. 125 

And Irene was in the prison-house for fourteen days. 
And at the end of fourteen days the king called her and 
said to her, " Irene, sacrifice to the gods. Hearken to my 
voice, that thou die not very badly." 

But she answered him not a word. And when the king 
saw that she gave him no answer, he was filled with a great 
anger. And the king commanded, [saying,] "Bring me 
three hundred nails, and fasten them under her feet, and 
load her with a sack of sand, and thrust a muzzle in her 
mouth ; and let a soldier lead her like a beast" And the 
servants of sin made her run five miles, and made her 
return five miles. But the blessed lamb of the Christ did 
not feel the pain in her feet, and the suffering did not reach 
her heart. And when they brought her into the city, many 
of the pagans were laughing at her and saying, " Where is 
Jesus ? Is He not coming to save her now ? " 

But the blessed one saw an angel who was standing 
before her. And he held a rod of iron and struck it on 
the earth saying thus : " The engulfing of the enemies of 
righteousness to-day." And when the blessed one came 
and arrived at the place where she had seen the angel 
standing, the earth opened its mouth and swallowed up the f- 124 b 
servants of sin, and many pagans. And the nails were 
taken away from her feet, and the sack of sand that she 
carried; and the muzzle was taken from her mouth, and they 
were swallowed up with the infidels. And when the king 
saw this sign of a wonder, he was amazed and astonished. 
And he turned round and said to the crowd of the infidels, 
" They had sinned some sin before the gods, therefore hath 
the earth swallowed them up." And in all these things the 
heart of the king was hardened, and that of his magnates, 
and they believed not in God. And the angel of God 
turned hastily towards the assembly of the wicked, and 
he slew many of them. But the number of those who were 

126 IRENE. 

engulfed with those who died was ten thousand ; and those 
who were left cried to the Lord God, saying, " Have mercy 
upon us. oh God ! and forgive us our sins by Thy grace, 
and be reconciled to us, according to Thy mercies; for 
Thou art the merciful God, who hast done many wonders 
by the hand of Irene." And three thousand souls believed 
in God at that moment. 

And as the king did not wish to believe, the Lord 
smote him and slew him. 

But the blessed lamb of the Christ went into the city, 
and taught many, and baptized them in the name of the 
Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit And they 
brought near to her those who were sick with various and 
hateful diseases, and she cured them by the power of God. 
For the grace of God accompanied the holy Irene. And 
moreover they brought near to her those in whom there 
f. 125 a were evil spirits, and she cured them by the power of God. 
And she chased away the demons. And they brought to 
her a certain six years old boy, in whom was an evil spirit, 
which withered him up. 

And when she saw it she was grieved on account of 
his youth. And she asked the mother of the boy : " How 
old is this child ? " And the boy's mother said : " Six years 
old, lady." And the blessed one, the handmaid of the 
Christ, took pity on the boy. And she lifted him up in her 
arms, and sealed him in the name of the Father, and the 
Son, and the Holy Ghost And she prayed and said : 
"God who has created man in His image, the merciful, the 
pitiful, He who has said : c I do not wish the death or 
destruction of men/ Lord God ! whose are the heaven 
and the earth, rebuke Satan and all his temptations, and 
look on the tender age of this boy, and send him help 
from Thy sanctuary, and let all men know that Thou hast 
answered them who call upon Thee in truth; and shew 

IRENE. 127 

the sign of Thy miracle in him who has wronged this boy, 
and may this demon speak and make [himself] known 
to me." 

And when the blessed one had prayed and finished 
her prayer, the angel of God bound the demon and set 
him before her. And when she saw the demon, she said 
to him, "Tell me, thou unclean demon, why hast thou 
subjugated this boy and spoilt his youth?" Said the 
demon: "I implore thee, my lady, I have surely been sent" 
Irene said : " God doth not tempt, and willeth not the 
death of man. Tell me, therefore, who hath sent thee." 
The demon answered : " Wicked men who treat each other 
badly." Irene said: "Shew me who it is that sent thee." f. 
Said the demon : " I have told thee, my lady, that they 
are wizards, the enemies of the justice of God, and our 
friends. Therefore we are sent by them for vengeance. 
And we go wheresoever we are sent. And some men we 
corrupt, and some we paralyse ; and some of them we put 
to death in ways that are bad and varied." 

Irene said : " Bring them to me, those who have sent 
thee." The demon said : " My lady, whilst I am standing 
here I will tell thee their names." 

Irene said: "Who are they?" The demon said: "I 
implore of thee, my lady, Amos and Euteles, they who 
have a bazaar near the great portico of the Temple of 
Fortune of the city, and who have also a bank." 

Then she sent and had them both brought, and she 
said to them, " Hear ye what this demon saith? Look if 
he be speaking the truth. And I will not loose the demon; 
because a demon has never spoken the truth, and see if 
ye have sent him ; and so far as I think, he speaks the truth 
from fear, for no demon is able to stand up before the 
servants of God and lie, for he fears lest they should 
destroy him." 

128 IRENE. 

And the holy Irene turned towards all the people, and 
said : " Brethren, do not believe the demon, because he is 
a liar, and does not desire the quiet of men, but wars and 
contentions; because he is the enemy of justice. But I 
ask you to tell me the truth. Has it ever been heard by 
you about these men that they are malefactors ? " 

They said, " Yes, lady, they are bad, and their parents 
also followed these bad courses, and they have corrupted 
f. 126 a and destroyed many people of the city." 

And she said to these two bad men, " Verily ye have 
sinned like men and have made God angry, but now repent 
towards Him ; and your sins shall be forgiven ; and your 
debts shall be blotted out." 

And they returned her an answer : " But as for us, lady, 
we do not know what thou hast said, and we cannot 
approach to that business." And when Irene saw that they 
denied about their deeds and that they did not want to 
confess and repent towards God, she said to them : " Ye 
yourselves know; I am freed from your blood." And 
she looked to heaven and said: "Lord Jesus the Christ, 
Son of the Living God, if it be true what they say about 
these men, and if they do not want to confess and repent, 
shew concerning them a sign of miracle in the sight of 
every one ; and let those who are standing here see and 
know that Thou only art the God of truth." And imme- 
diately a fire was kindled in their hearts, and it took hold 
of their bodies, and they were burnt. For the burning came 
from themselves and amongst them, and they were like a 
flaming furnace. And they burned and became like burnt 
firebrands. And when they saw them a great fear fell 
amongst them. And after these things she lifted the boy 
in her arms, and looked to heaven and prayed. And she 
sealed him in the name of the Father, and Son, and Holy 
Spirit And he was healed and she gave him quite whole 
to his mother. 

IRENE. 129 

But when the great crowd who were standing there 
saw the death and destruction of the wicked people, and 
the healing of the boy, they gave praise to God and 
shouted, saying, "Great is the God of Irene." 

And after two days some people were carrying a certain f. 126 b 
young man and were going out to bury him. And the 
blessed Irene saw that his parents were weeping, and were 
lamenting bitterly over him, because he was their only 
son. And she was grieved. And the father of the young 
man who had died, when he saw the holy Irene, came and 
fell on his face before her feet, saying to her, while prostrate, 
" I beseech thee, lady, have pity on the humiliation of my 
grey hairs. This was the only son I had. And if thou 
wilt, pray to God that he may live. For we also are 
Christians, lady, and disciples of the Word of thy holiness, 
and by means of thee we have known the Living God." 

And she took pity on his old age, and went with him 
to those who were carrying the bier. And she spake to 
the bearers and they laid the bier down on the earth. 
And she turned to the whole crowd and said, " My fellow 
believers, offer prayer to God with me." And she stretched 
out her hands and looked 1 towards heaven, and prayed, 
saying, " O Lord God, King of the ages, He who sitteth 
on the cherubim and the seraphim stand before Him : and 
the angels and the archangels and all the hosts of heaven 
serve Him with fear. O God who didst shew wonders by 
the hands of the prophets and of the holy fathers ; Lord 
of the righteous, and Lover of the penitent ; He whom 
the prophets sought for and whose faith the Apostles 
preached : in the created [world] by Jesus the Christ, the 
Son of the Living God ; He who said, ' He that believeth John xiv. 
on me, greater works than these which I do, shall he I3 

1 Literally, "and her look." 
L. E. R 

130 IRENE. 

do/ He who gave life to the only son of the widow, and 
snatched the daughter of Jairus from death by His hand, 
f. 1 27 a He who called Lazarus out of the grave, and brought 
him up out of Sheol, the voracious pit. And now, Lord, 
Thou art and Thou dost exist for ever. Shew, Lord, the 
power of Thy might in this dead man, and let him live, 
and stand up; because he also is the only son of his 
parents. And let these multitudes see [it] and praise Thy 
holy name. And let all the erring ones turn towards 

And when she had finished her prayer, the dead man 
lived and arose and ran and came before her and adored 
her. But when these crowds saw it they were astonished 
and they praised God. And many believed in God on 
that day. And on that day, by the will of God, Timothy 
the holy priest came to the holy woman. And she saw 
him and rejoiced with great joy. And she ran and did 
obeisance to him as to the apostle of Jesus. And she led 
him and went to the castle where her father and her 
mother dwelt And she said to the great crowd of the 
believers, "My brethren, be active, and come with me as 
far as the castle." And as they were on their way, it was 
told to Licinius her father, " Thy daughter and a priest of 
God are coming towards thee." And when he heard [it], 
he rejoiced with great joy. And when he saw the great 
crowd that was coming, he commanded that all the gates 
of the wall should be opened, and the gates of the castle 
itself. And the king and queen ran and went joyfully out 
to meet the holy priest, and Irene their daughter. For 
their mind exulted when they heard that their daughter 
was alive, and was coming towards them, 
f. 127 b And when they saw their daughter with the holy priest, 
they ran and did obeisance to him 1 . And they wept and 
1 Literally, "to the holy priest." 

IRENE. 131 

kissed and embraced their daughter lovingly, and praised 
God. For they had imagined that their daughter was dead. 
And when they saw her in life, they rejoiced and praised 
God. And the blessed one turned to her father and her 
mother, and said to them, " Peace be to you, my beloved 
parents. Be not troubled and weep not, for behold God hath 
given you His grace, and by means of the fruit of your 
blood ye have known God." And she turned to the holy 
priest and said to him, " I beseech of thee, my lord, priest 
of the living God, complete thy blessing and thy favour to 
my weakness ; and baptize my father and my mother, 
and the many young men who are hoping to receive the 
symbol of the Christ": and she said to her father and 
to her mother, " Dear parents, behold [, this is] the day 
when your debts shall be wiped out, and ye shall be 
washed from the filth of your sins. Behold, our Lord 
Jesus hath sent the holy priest. Take the baptism and 
receive the symbol of the Christ; and partake of the 
marriage feast of the heavenly king." And they said, 
"And what may prevent it, O beloved daughter?" 

And the priest took the oil, and blessed and anointed 
them, and he blessed upon and sanctified the water, and 
baptized the king and the queen and also the soldiers: 
and [of] the troops of the king four hundred persons who 
were with them, and fifty thousand persons of the many 
people who had come there. And after the holy priest had 
baptized them, the holy Irene greeted 1 her father and her f. 128 a 
mother, and all the rest of the household. And the blessed 
one commanded them and said to them, "Be confirmed 
in what ye have received. Be valiant in Jesus, and be 
strong in the faith. Lo ! ye have received baptism. Your 
bodies are cleansed, and ye are mingled with the sheep 
of Jesus. Your hearts are sanctified to be a dwelling- 

1 Literally, "gave peace to." 

132 IRENE. 

place of Jesus." And she said to them, " Abide in peace, 
and if it please the Lord Jesus, I will see you again." 
And she went out of the castle with the priest, and many 
people. But the king and the queen remained in the 
castle, and the four hundred persons who were with them, 
who had been baptized, praising God, and there was great 
joy in that city. 

And afterwards two lepers drew near to her, who 
came from a far country. And she saw the dust that was 
upon their faces, and that their shoes were split, and she 
knew that they had come from afar. And she said to 
them, "Why have ye come to me? Behold, I am a weak 
woman, commonplace and feeble, and I possess nothing 
in this world, and I am a sinner." But they said to her, 
" O lady ! thou doest well to humble thyself in [relation 
to] thine own will. But towards God thou art elect and 
great. And thou dost fulfil the word of Jesus thy 
LukexviU. Bridegroom; for thou hast heard that He said, 'Who- 
14 soever humbleth himself shall be exalted/ " 

And those people threw themselves down on the 
ground before her feet, and they wept and said, " If thou 
wilt, lady, pray for us to God, and we shall be cleansed 
from our leprosy." 

Then the holy one threw herself down before the Lord 
f. i2Sb and shed tears with sobs, and prayed, saying, "0 Lord 
God, to whom belongs the heaven and the earth, hearken 
unto the voice of Thy handmaid. And in Thy compassion 
grant my request : and may Thy power come from on 
high on the bodies of these people, and may they be 
cleansed, and let many see [it] and praise Thy great and 
fearful name." And whilst she was praying, the angel of 
God came and stood before her. And he said to her, 
" Peace be unto thee, Irene, virgin of the Christ." 

And when she saw the angel, she said, " Blessed be 

IRENE. 133 

Thou, O God, to whom belongs the heaven and the earth, 
for Thou hast heard the voice of Thy humble servant, and 
hast not turned away Thy face from me. But Thou hast 
sent Thine angel from on high from before Thy holy 
throne ; and he has come to heal and to cleanse the bodies 
of these people." And immediately a fountain of water 
sprang up there. And when the blessed one saw it 1 , she 
praised God and said, " This spring is from the holy water 
of Jordan, of that which Elisha the prophet blessed ; and 
the Lord of Elisha blessed [it] by His baptism." 

And she said to these men, " Go in and wash in that 
water, confessing the Father, and the Son, and the Holy 
Spirit ; and your bodies shall be cleansed, and shall become 
tender as infants." Then these men went with great fear 
into the fountain of water, saying, " We confess the name 
of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost." And 
they came out of the fountain with their bodies cleansed, 
and fear and astonishment took hold of the great crowd f. 129 a 
that was there, and they praised God that the blessed 
Irene, the virgin of the Christ, had done these miracles and 

And she was three years in that city. And when 
Zedekiah and Severon his son were dead, Numerianus 
reigned after them, the son of Septinus. And he inquired 
about the blessed Irene. And he said, "Where is she?" 
And they said to him, " She is here in the city." And he 
sent soldiers, and commanded them, and said that they 
should " bring her to the city of Callinicus ; and let her be 
kept there until I come " And the soldiers found her, those 
who went out after her ; and they brought her to the city 
of Callinicus ; and there she was carefully kept in the 
prison-house until the king should come there. And when 
he came, they informed him [saying], " Irene is there, she 
1 Literally, "the fountain of water." 

134 IRENE. 

whom thy; Majesty asked for." And he commanded, 
" Bring her to me." And she came and stood before him. 
And when the king saw her, he was astonished. 

And he said to his great men, " Hallo ! this maiden is 
very like her father." And he said, "This girl is [the 
daughter] of Licinius; he forsook his kingdom, and re- 
nounced it; and now this city is without a king. On 
her account Zedekiah my brother was stoned and died. 
And because of her the angel of the Lord smote Severon 
his son and slew him. And I seek to requite their blood 
at her hands. And I fear lest a fate worse than that of 
my colleagues should befall me. Truly, as I see, this 
woman is a destroyer of the kingdom and also an over- 
turner of kings. And I know not what I shall do to 
f, i29b her." And he turned and said to the advocates who were 
standing in his presence, " Advise me in your wisdom by 
what torment I shall destroy her from the world. She 
has killed my father 1 , and Zedekiah my brother ; and she 
caused Severon his son to perish from the world. And 
what will she do to me ? She is the extirpator of royalty." 
The magnates said to him, " Truly thou hast spoken well, 
lord the king." Then the king commanded that they 
should bring her before him, and they brought her, and 
she stood before him. 

The king said, " Irene, what dost thou say? Wilt thou 
sacrifice to the gods or wilt thou be obstinate? and dost 
thou persist in the folly of the Christians ? " 

Irene said, " Because thou hast repeatedly said that I 
am the overturner of royalty, I say to thee, that thou also, 
if thou dost not believe in God, in a very little while the 
judgment of God shall overtake thee also ; and thou shalt 
die a frightful and uncommon death. And then thou 
shalt know that there is a God who rules in the heaven 

1 Cod. "her father." 

IRENE. 135 

and in the earth." And when the king had heard [it] he 
was filled with great rage ; and he commanded, " Bring me 
men who are artificers in copper." And they came and 
stood before him. The king said to them, "Make me 
three very large cows." And they made them and brought 
them to him. And he commanded that they should be 
greatly heated. And these cows were heated for three days 
and three nights, until the copper was nearly melted. And 
when the cows were heated, he commanded, and they 
brought Irene before him. The king said, " Irene, what 
sayest thou? I have commanded that there should be f. 130 a 
three cows of copper on thy account And [here] they 
are. And I have commanded that they should be heated. 
And they are also heated frightfully. Now if thou wilt 
sacrifice to the gods, thou shalt be delivered from a 
frightful and terrible death. But if thou wilt not sacrifice, 
thou shalt be cast into the cows and shalt be burnt, and 
shalt die a very hard death. And if thou shouldst conquer 
the one by thy witchcraft, thou shalt be cast into the other ; 
and if again thou shouldst conquer the second one by thy 
skill, thou shalt be cast into the third, and shalt perish. 
And very grievously shalt thou depart. And we shall see 
if Jesus will come, He in whom thou believest, and will save 
thee from my hands. Approach, therefore, and sacrifice to 
the gods." 

Irene said, " Be not troubled, O son of Satan ; for how- 
ever much thy father Satan hath excited thee against me, I 
am not afraid of thee, neither now do thy threats move me. 
See therefore that thou explain to me in the skill of thy 
deceitful teaching, the stripes and the torments of thy 
contrivances." Then the king was greatly enraged, and 
said to her, " Cursed child ! slayer of its parents, extirpator 
of royalty, thou hast called me senseless, I will shew thee 
what sense there is in me, by means of the torments that 

136 IRENE. 

my mind shall devise against thee." And he commanded 
them to cany her out, and to heat these copper cows. 
And he commanded the heralds to go out into the city 
and proclaim that all men should come and see the 
punishment and procession of the infidel despiser of the 
gods. And when all the city was assembled, the king 
came and sat on his judgment-seat, and he commanded 
them : " Bring before me the audacious one, the parricide" 
And she came and stood before him. The king said, " Irene, 
f. 130 b choose between two things, either sacrifice to the gods, or 
go into the copper cow" 

Irene said, " O senseless fool, and ignorant sinner ! son 
of Satan the coiling serpent! I have said to thee once 
[for all] that I am a Christian ; and I will not sacrifice to 
the infidel demons nor to the foul fiends ; and I will not 
forsake Jesus the Christ, my Lord ; and I shall not be 
forsaken by Him. And these cows which flame by means 
of thine evil skill, are to me fountains of cold water by the 
help of Jesus, and they are of no account to me. For thou 
shalt see quickly the power of the Lord Jesus to help that 
is with me. And as for thee, His wrath is ready to come 
upon thee by means of a terrible angel. And thou shalt 
die a fearful and uncommon death; not like thy pre- 
decessors, but thou shalt die the fearful death of terror. 
And thine [own] liver shall be thy food, and thy lung thy 
sustenance. And thy punishment shall -be from thyself 
and in thyself. And thou shalt know that there is a God 
in heaven." Then the king waxed exceeding wroth, and 
was like a lion eager to rend. And he commanded them 
to throw her into the copper cow. And when she heard 
[it,] before the servants of sin had laid hold of her and led 
her out, she made the sign of Jesus on her breasts and 
between her eyes, and she ran boldly to the copper cow 
and went in. And immediately the fire was quenched; 

IRENE. 137 

and the handmaid of the Christ was set free like a ship 
on a peaceful sea ; and waters flowed from the cow itself. 
But when the judge saw it, he said to the people, " Did 
I not tell you that she would conquer by her witchcraft?" 

But all the people wept bitterly, when they saw the f. 131 
beauty of her youth, and what torments she suffered. 

Then she prayed in God's presence and said, " O Lord 
God, who dwellest in the highest heavens ! hearken to my 
voice, and let Thy mercy come hither. See, because of 
Thy name I suffer these things. This I know, that Thou 
hast helped me and wilt help me. But because of these 
crowds, that they may see the sign of a miracle and may 
praise Thy name." And when she had said these things 
and had prayed, she saw the angel of God standing beside 
her. And he said to her, " Peace be to thee, Irene ; fear 
not, for the Lord is with thee, and I have been sent for 
thy comfort." And she rejoiced and exulted at the sight 
of the angel. 

And then the king commanded them to throw her into 
the second cow. Irene said, " O Satan, and son of Satan, 
and enemy of justice, if thou hast not been confounded by 
the first cow, thou shalt be confounded by this second one ; 
and thou shalt despise thyself. And if again thou art not 
moved by the second, thou shalt be confounded by the end 
of the third, and shalt blush, when the wrath of the Lord 
shall come suddenly upon thee." 

And he commanded them to throw her into the second 
cow. But when she heard it, she sealed herself in the 
name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost 
And she went into the cow rejoicing and exulting in the 
power of Jesus to help. And immediately the fire was 
quenched, and the flame was cooled, and the cow was 
melted like wax ; and the blessed one was not hurt. And 
when the king again saw [it] he said to his magnates, 

L. E. 

138 IRENE. 

"Did I not tell you that she would conquer the fire by her 

f. 131 b And the king commanded them to throw her into the 
third cow. But when she had heard it, she blessed God 
and said to the judge, " Thy torments are very insipid and 
thy fire is very cool. Thou art a serpent with many heads, 
and with thee are thy servants. For as for these cows, water 
instead of fire has come to them." And she went joyfully 
into the third cow in the strength of Jesus, laughing at 
them, for the pagans imagined that there her destruction 
would be. But when the blessed one entered the third 
cow, it walked as if it were animated in the flesh; 
that it might proclaim to the unbelievers about the grace 
of God. And that brazen cow walked for four stadia here 
and there. And all the people who were standing there 
for the spectacle were seized with astonishment, saying to 
one another, "Who has ever seen brass that walked like 
flesh ?" And while they were saying these things, they 
looked and watched whence they should see the blessed 
one. But as for the cow its brass was melted like water ; 
and it fell to the earth, and the blessed one appeared in 
the sight of all men. And they were amazed at this 
wonder. Even the king was greatly astonished that the 
fire had no power over her. And they all cried to the 
Lord and said, "There is none like unto Thee, Lord 
God, and there are none like unto Thy servants. Be 
merciful to us as in the abundance of Thy grace. Thou 
art He who hast done the miracle by the hand of Irene ; 
and Thou hast shewn Thy might and Thy valour amongst 
the nations ." And a hundred thousand souls believed in 

f. 132 a God that day. And the few people who were left who 
were unbaptized, believed nevertheless in God. 

And when the king saw that all the people believed in 
God, he was exceedingly wroth and bitter ; and he opened 

IRENE. 139 

his mouth and blasphemed against God. And he said to 
Irene, " I swear by all the gods, that I will not spare thee, 
but I will cut thee up limb by limb ; and I will make thee 
food for dogs." Then Irene laughed and said, "Thou 
and thine imaginations shall be confounded, and all thy 
contrivances against me, thou son of Satan." And when 
the king had heard [it] he gnashed his tusks like a wild 
boar against her, and blasphemed God. But suddenly the 
angel of the Lord struck him with a pain in his heart, 
and with an internal wound. And he went to his house 
screaming. And a fire was kindled within him, and he 
tasted no food, and his liver overflowed and swelled up, and 
his lung was nourishment for him, and worms came out of 
his mouth : and his kinsmen were afraid to come near him. 
And he yelled and burst asunder and died. And his body 
was decomposed and his bones were scattered. And then 
the earth did not receive his bones. And when he died, 
he commanded Bura the Eparch to try the virgin of the 
Christ After the death of the tyrant and of those [who 
were] with him, the word of God had free course by means 
of the Blessed One ; and God was glorified, and the faith 
became mighty, and many were baptized. And she was 
in the city of Callinicus for thirty days doing signs and f. 132 b 
wonders ; and she cured many in the name of Jesus. She 
made the deaf hear ; she opened [the eyes of] the blind ; 
she cleansed the lepers ; and she healed all who were in 
pain ; and she baptized many in the name of the Father, 
and the Son, and the Holy Spirit. 

And at the end of thirty days the Eparch went to Tela 
of Mauzalat 1 . And he sent soldiers after her to Callinicus 
to bring her. And these soldiers 8 found her. And they 
had heard from many of the citizens the signs and wonders 

1 " Mesembria " in the Sunaxaristes. 

2 MS. "And the soldiers who went after her to Callinicus." 

140 IRENE. 

and miracles which she had done. And they were greatly 
astonished. And they approached and said to her, " Hail 1 
to thee, handmaiden of the Christ ! the Eparch 2 sends for 

Irene said, "And where is the Eparch?" The soldiers 
said, "In Tela of Mauzalat, my lady; and he awaits 
thee there," 

And the blessed virgin of Jesus arose, and went with 
them, and entered the city of Tela. And it was said to 
the Eparch: "Behold, Irene has come." The Eparch 
said, "Bring her before me." And she came and stood 
before him. And when the Eparch saw her, he said, 
"Peace 8 be to thee, Irene." 

Irene said, " Dost thou greet me with peace ? but there 
shall be no peace upon thee. Because God has said, 
Is. xiviii. that there is no peace to the wicked. " The Eparch said, 
32 " Thou impudent and godless woman ! Thou dost surely 

insult me. Approach now and sacrifice to the gods, or 
dost thou not know that I have received a commandment 
concerning thee from Numerianus 4 the king to judge 
f. 1 33 a thee?" Irene said, "See, and give heed to thyself, lest 
thou shouldst follow after him who hast commanded thee." 
The Eparch said, "Approach and sacrifice to the gods, lest 
I destroy thee from off the world by varied tortures " 
Irene said, " Hearken, Eparch, and I will tell thee. We 
are a spectacle to men and also to the angels. To men 
for derision, and to the angels for praise. And we are 
considered as dross by men. Now therefore I say unto 
thee, Bura the Eparch ! prepare for thyself instruments 

1 Or, " Peace." 

8 Properly " Hyparch" fassim. But as there is no other Syriac equivalent 
for the*E*rapxos of Irene's biography in the 2waa/>foro;s, we believe that the 
translator means Eparch. 

9 Or, "Hair 

4 MS. "thekingofEdom." 

IRENE. 141 

of torture as thou wilt, and thou shalt see the power 
of God in the fortitude with which I shall endure the 
agony. But thou wouldst force me to sacrifice to the 
lifeless gods, who neither see nor hear, nor smell, nor walk, 
whose makers shall become similar to them, and all those 
who, like thee, trust in them. And I would persuade and PS. cxv. 8 
advise thee, to turn and to know the living God, who 
never dies ; He who made thee out of nothing ; lest thou 
shouldest die a bad death like thy predecessors." 

Bura said, " unmannerly child ! O parricide ! dost 
thou really threaten me?" Irene said, "1 have not 
insulted thee, but I give thee this advice, that thou 
shouldst know Him who kills and who makes alive, who 
brings down to Sheol, and who raises up, and who loves 
those who return to Him. And I confide in Jesus, that 
the grace of the Christ will speedily draw thee, that thou 
mayest know God." The Eparch said, " Shall I also then 
become a Christian, O cursed child ?" Irene said, " I have 
said the word, which I know shall become a deed." 

The Eparch said, " I swear by all the gods, that I will f. 
not spare thee, nor thy impudence ; but I decree for thee 
these tortures that have not yet been seen in the world, 
nor have they entered into the heart of the judges; 
and they will terrify by their severity all who see them." 

The Eparch said, " Bring me the smiths." And they 
came and stood before him. And he said to them, 
" Make me an arm-chair of iron, and let it be one cubit 
high in elevation; and make me two thin chains." And 
they made [them] and brought [them]. And he com- 
manded them to make Irene sit down. And she came 
and stood before him. The Eparch said, "Irene, what 
sayest thou? wilt thou sacrifice to the gods or no?" 

Irene said, " Satan incarnate ! son of the deceiver ! 
how far wilt thou persist in thine audacity ? Have I not 

142 IRENE. 

said to thee that I will not sacrifice to unclean demons, 
nor will I worship foul fiends ; and I will not forsake my 
Lord and my God, Jesus the Christ; and I shall not be 
forsaken by Him : for He will deliver me from all thine 
inventions, senseless fool ! " 

Said the Eparch to his servants, " Make her sit down 
in this iron chair, and bind her with these chains, and 
heap wood above it. And throw fat and wax and naphtha 
and sulphur and pitch and resin upon the wood, and 
kindle the fire." And the servants of sin did thus. And 
f. 134 a when the fire had mastered the wood, and had risen above 
the chair twelve cubits, the Eparch said, "Let us see if 
Jesus will deliver her from my hands." And immediately, 
by the commandment of God, an angel descended from 
heaven, and seized Irene by her hand, and set her out of 
the chair. And the chair and the iron chains were melted 
like wax. And he took her out of the flame, and placed 
her on one side out of the fire, when the fire had not 
reached to her dress. And when the Eparch saw that 
she was standing outside of the flame he was greatly 
astonished; and he feared and trembled greatly. And 
he ran and fell on his face before her feet, weeping, and 
sought to persuade her, saying, " I implore thee, O lady, 
handmaiden of the Christ, have mercy upon me. Lo ! I 
also believe in thy God, and henceforth I am a Christian. 
And henceforth I renounce all the gods of paganism, and 
let me not die a fearful death, lady." 

But she said to him, "Did I not tell thee that thou 
wouldst speedily turn towards Jesus?" And he said to 
her, " I implore of thee, lady, pray for me, that I may be 
accepted and not rejected ; and that what I have plotted 
against thee may not come into judgment against me." 
And Irene said, " Peace be to thee, fear not, let no anxiety 
come to thee." But when the crowds who surrounded the 

IRENE. 143 

Eparch saw that he believed in God, many also believed 
with him, and confessed God. 

And she was there, in that city, for fifty days. And in 
it she won many to Jesus, and the Lord God sent the holy f. 1345 
priest to her in the city of Tela, and he baptized the Eparch 
and many who were with him who believed in the Lord 
Jesus Christ 

But Shabur the Persian king had come to Nisibis; and 
he had heard about the blessed Irene, that she was in Tela. 
And at the end of fifty days, he sent seven horsemen after 
her, and they brought her to Nisibis. And when she had 
entered the city of Nisibis, it was told to Shabur the king : 
" Irene is come." And he commanded them to bring- her. 
And she came speedily and stood before him. But when 
Shabur the king saw her, he did not wish to interrogate 
her, for he said, <c This is the destroyer of royalty." And 
he struck her with the sword which he held in his hand 
and killed her. The king said, "Is not this the famous 
one? Why has she not killed me? Where is Jesus 
her helper? Let him come now and succour her, if he 

Then the Christian brethren came and carried away 
her holy body, and buried it. Said the king : " Lest Jesus 
should come and raise her up? 1 ' 

After these things the king was silent ; and found 
nothing further to say about her. 

And she was for four days in the grave. And at 
the end of four days, an angel came down from heaven 
and raised her up. And he said to her, "Irene, thy 
struggle is finished, and the crown of thy victory is 
adorned. From henceforth nothing bad shall come near to f. 135 a 
thy body ; and thou shalt see nothing hateful in the world ; 
because the course of thy labour is finished Rise there- 
fore and enter the city, and fear not ; and make disciples 

144 IRENE. 

of many, according to thy custom. And king Shabur, 
who killed thee, will do obeisance to thee, and will try to 
persuade thee to remain in his city. And many will believe 
in God along with him on account of thee. Blessed and 
happy art thou among women, and great is thy reward in 
heaven, and glittering is the crown of thy victory at the 
marriage supper of the heavenly bridegroom, Jesus the 
Christ." And the angel went from her up to heaven. 

And the blessed Irene took in her hand an olive- 
branch, and she sang praises and psalms. And she went 

s. Ixviii. into the city and spake thus : " Let God arise, and let all 
His enemies be scattered ; and let those who hate Him 
flee from before Him," and " There is none like unto Thee, 
Lord God ! and there are nothing like unto Thy works. 
For lo! Thou doest wonders to the dead, and men shall 

s. Ixxi. arise and praise Thee. Lord, who is like unto Thee ? " 

* And when the citizens saw her, they knew that she had 

risen from the dead, and they ran and did obeisance before 
her. And they shouted, saying, "Great is the God of 
Irene. And there is no other, but He alone." And 
when there was a shout and a great uproar, the king heard 
it and was afraid. And he inquired what was the noise of 
the uproar in the city. The dwellers in his palace say 

i35b to him, "Because of Irene, who is risen from the tomb, 
they are thanking and praising God who has raised her." 
And when the king heard [it], he commanded them to 
bring her into his presence. And Irene came and stood 
before him, carrying the sprig of olive, and looking like the 
dove of Noah, which carried the tidings of peace to the 
world. Thus Irene also carried the olive-leaf, the tidings 
of her resurrection. And when the king saw her, he knelt 
and did obeisance before her. And he said to her, " Irene, 
great is thy God. And now I know that God dwells with 
thee. And whosoever opposes thee opposes himself. And 

IRENE. 145 

now, lady, I implore and seek to persuade thee, stay in our 
city, and do what thou wilt with authority and do not fear. 
Because God is with thee, and man is unable to hurt thee." 
And she was a long time in that city, teaching the word of 
God, and making many disciples. And great was the 
praise of God because of her. And the number of all those 
who believed in God and were baptized by her hand was a 
hundred and thirty thousand souls. 

After these things she bade farewell to the king and to 
all the citizens ; and went to the castle to see her father 
and her mother. Ten days before she went thither 1 
Licinius her father died ; and she went to the castle and 
found him dead 2 . And she was grieved and remained 
there for three days. And after three days she bade f. 136 a 
farewell to her mother; and arose, and went to the city. 
And she left her mother in peace, and was in the city for 
three days. 

And after three days, by the commandment of God, a 
cloud took up the virgin of the Christ, and carried her to 
the city of Ephesus, and she was there; and she did many 
cures and miracles in the name of Jesus ; and she made 
disciples of many, for the citizens held her as one of the 
Apostles of Jesus. And she was in that city and in its 
district for seven years. 

And Apellianus her secretary heard it, and he arose 
and came to her to Ephesus. And when he saw her, he 
did obeisance to her. And they both rejoiced at the sight 
of each other. And Apellianus related to the citizens 
everything that she had endured from the kings, and they 
were very much astonished. 

And on the following day she said to all the citizens, 
" O brethren and fathers, abide in peace. And be strong 

1 Literally, " to the castle." 

2 Literally, " that her father had died.'* 

L.E. T 

146 IRENE. 

and firm in the Christ. And persevere and be established 
in your faith in the Christ For to-morrow I shall depart. 
And ye have received me well, and your recompence is 
preserved in heaven. For ye have heard that our Lord 
Matt. x. 41 said: 'He who receiveth a prophet in the name of a 
prophet, shall receive a prophet's reward ; and he who 
receiveth a righteous man in the name of a righteous man, 
shall receive a righteous man's reward and he who re- 
ceiveth a stranger for the sake of the Christ, the Christ 
will recompense him in heaven ten thousandfold V And 
when she had said these things, she finished her speech. 
But some of the citizens said, " She has said that she will 
depart, but where then is she going?" And they said 
further, " Perhaps she is going to die." Others said, " Nay, 
f. 1365 but she will ascend to heaven." Others said, "Perhaps 
Jesus the Christ, her Bridegroom will send and guide her : 
for we do not know it because we are sinners. God knows 
what He will do to His handmaiden." 

But the blessed Irene said to Apellianus her secretary, 
" Bring with thee six Christian men, believers, and come 
with me to a certain well-known place." And Apellianus 
brought six Christian men of the patricians of the city, 
and they went with her outside the city. And they found 
a certain coffin of marble that had been laid there in that 
place years before ; in which man had never before been 

And Irene said to Apellianus and to those with him, 
" Beloved and faithful brethren, abide in peace. Behold ! 
I shall go into this coffin to-day. And do ye take its 
cover and lay it above it. And for four days let no man 
come near to the coffin. And she went into that coffin, 
saying, * Brethren, be at peace; and the grace of our Lord 
Jesus the Christ be with you all, amen." 

And she said, "Let an artificer come and bring iron 

IRENE. 147 

clasps, and solder the coffin and also the lid with lead. 
And mark ye [it] with your signet rings ; and seal it, and 
go ye into the city." 

And she commanded them, saying to them, "When 
four days are finished, come ye out and open the coffin ; 
and look, if ye find my body in it, well, good; but if f. 137 a 
ye do not find my body in it, do not doubt, but know ye 
that my Lord Jesus, my Bridegroom, hath hidden away the 
body of His handmaiden where He willed. For I know 
not whither He will carry it; for I have heard that He 
said, ' In my Father's house are many mansions?' Johnxiv. 2 

And they did as she had said. And an artificer came 
and put clasps on the lid of the coffin, and soldered them 
with lead ; and they all sealed them with their signet rings, 
and went into the city. And after four days, Apellianus 
drew near at the time of dawn, he and six Christian men, 
they with whose signet rings the coffin was sealed. And 
many of the citizens went out with them to the coffin; 
and they bent the knee and prayed there. And they 
opened the coffin, and they found the clothes of the virgin 
of the Christ folded up and lying in the coffin. And 
they did not find her body. 

And they saw the angel of God who was standing 
there beside the coffin. And he said unto them, * Whom 
seek ye?" They say unto him, "Irene, my lord, perhaps 
thou knowest who has taken her away from here." But 
he said to them, "Lo! she is enjoying herself in the 
Paradise of Eden, at the marriage feast of the heavenly 
Bridegroom, Jesus the Christ, the Son of God/* And fear 
took hold of them, and perturbation remained in their 
minds; and they went into the city praising and blessing 
God, about the wonder which they had seen. And many 
who heard it believed, and confessed the name of the 
Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit f. 137 b 

148 IRENE. 

This is the martyrdom of Irene ; this is the conflict of 
the virgin of the Christ And she was made the messenger 
of peace on behalf of all believers. 

And the cities in which she triumphed are: firstly, 
Magedo, the city in which she was born; secondly, 
Callinicus; thirdly, Tela of Mauzalet; fourthly, Nisibis; 
fifthly, Ephesus, in which was her good end. 

And the kings who judged her : Licinius her father ; 
secondly, Zedekia; thirdly, Severon his son; fourthly, 
Numerianus; fifthly, Bura the Eparch; sixthly, Shabur 
the Persian king, he in whose presence she finished the 
course of her conflict. Praise be to the Christ who gave 
power to His virgin ; and she overcame all the wiles of the 
devil. May God the Christ give us a portion and an 
inheritance along with her in the kingdom of heaven ! 
And may her prayer be for the sinner who composed and 
wrote her martyrology for ever and even 

Here endeth the story of the blessed Irene. 


AGAIN, the martyrdom of the blessed Euphemia, which 
took place a mile from the town of Chalcedon, in the days 
of the Emperor Trajan Caesar. 

When Priscus was Proconsul in Europe, there was a 
great assembly of Christians in the town of Chalcedon. 
And Priscus the Proconsul had a wicked friend, whose 
name was Apellianus. And he was a sophist in the f. 138 a 
erudition of the Greeks. He was a worshipper of Ares. 
This Apellianus accused the Christians, saying, "O glorious 
warrior amongst men, and Proconsul wise of heart! let 
this be known to thy Highness. Because Ares is a great 
god, so all men should offer sacrifices and libations to 
him 1 by command of the great Emperor." And this 
pleased Priscus the Proconsul for the destruction and evil 
of the souls of those who were enchained in error. And 
he nailed up placards full of menaces and fierce threats in 
all the palace of his Highness, which were inscribed after 
this manner : " Men and friends, citizens of Chalcedon, be 
it known to you all that it is proper for you to hallow a day, 
that by command of the Emperor there may be offered a 
sacrifice to the great god Ares. But if any one should 
be found who remains in an evil mind, and preaches and 
teaches the religion of the Christians, I will destroy his 
body by severe tortures. And let this be the sign to you. 
When at the time of the sacrifices the horn shall sound 

1 Literally, "to the great god Ares." 


which assembles you all, ye shall all hasten reverently [and] 
eagerly to this temple of Ares and offer sacrifices, and know 
the great god Ares." And every day Apellianus was as- 
sidious, that at the time that the horns should sound, and 
they should move tumultuously before the altar, as was 
their custom, an investigation should be made about every 
f. 138 b man as to who had the greatest zeal. And he who blew 1 
on the horn blew mightily, and collected all who had lost 
hope. But the Christians, those in whose souls God dwelt, 
were all assembled in one house, and they besought God by 
prayer and entreaty. And the blessed Euphemia was also 
constantly amongst them, she being the daughter of the 
senator Philophron. And Drusina her mother was with 
her. And she was a believer, and did much almsgiving, 
because she was looking for the hope and the promise of 
the Christ Therefore Apellianus, being of the household 
of Satan, said to the Proconsul: "There are people here 
who shut themselves up in a single house, who are not 
willing to obey the commandment of the Emperor, nor the 
commandment of thy Highness. And if thou shouldst 
overlook it now, many will turn from the great reverence for 
the gods, and will go and join themselves to them, and will 
scatter and disperse our sacrifice with derision." And when 
the Proconsul had heard this, he commanded them to 
come into his presence. And when these blessed ones 
came, Euphemia came in the midst of them with a joyful 
countenance and in chaste attire, more than all those who 
were with her, while she illuminated by her splendour 
the faces of those who contemplated her. 

f. 1 39 a And when they came and stood before the judgment 

seat of the Proconsul, he 2 answered and said to them : 
"Let all of you be submissive and obedient to the com- 

1 Or "called." 

2 MS. "the Proconsul." 


mandment of the Emperor, and sacrifice to the great god 

But they all together replied with one voice [and] with 
the blessed Euphemia, saying, " Be this known unto thee, 
Proconsul. We are the servants of the Eternal God, the 
great King who dwells in the heaven of heavens, and of 
His true Son, our Lord Jesus the Christ, and of the Holy 
Spirit He who hath stretched out the heaven and hath 
established the earth ; and hath created all works. Him 
we all worship, being eager to offer ourselves to Him in 
the sacrifice which is pleasing to Him." 

But when Priscus the Proconsul heard [this] he said to 
them, "I am astonished at each one of you. And I 
honour the prudence of your mind. Because I have more 
knowledge ; and I see the loveliness of you all. Therefore 
be persuaded by me, and obey the Emperor. And take 
delight in the sacrifice of the gods ; so that ye may have 
greater friendship from me; and that the Emperor may 
take knowledge of you ; and that ye may have greater 
rank and office." 

But when these brave men heard these things, they 
abated nothing of the splendour which suffused their faces; 
but the more were they exalted to the excellencies of the 
knowledge of God. And whilst the blessed Euphemia f. 
was with them, and they were all assembled together in the 
likeness of a host of angels, they said to the Proconsul, 
" We, Proconsul ! are the servants of the Most High 
God ; and we are eager that we may be known by Him in 
the faith which He has delivered to us ; and that we may 
receive His promise which says : * good and faithful Matt. 
servant, thou hast been faithful over a little, behold, I set 
thee over much/ And also to thee Proconsul ! does it 
not escape thee, that each one of those who have temporal 
authority is eager to please him who has given him 


the authority, that by means of it he may find higher 
degrees? If therefore it be that those who are mortal and 
corruptible, are subject unto mortal and corruptible kings, 
because they receive and seek for transient and unprofitable 
degrees, how much more should we keep the covenant, 
which we have made with God, who is incorruptible, 
and we expect to inherit the promises in His presence, 
those which endure for ever, which are incorruptible and 
inalienable. Do therefore what thou wilt, for we are 
ready because of the expectation of the heavenly promises 
to give ourselves over readily to death; and we shall 
receive the treasures that are being kept for us in the 
presence of God Almighty." 

And when Priscus the Proconsul heard these things he 
f. 140 a changed his countenance ; and commanded that each of 
them should be tortured with hard and bitter torments. 
And while these blessed ones were being tortured daily, 
they endured all the torments for the sake of the Christ, 
those heroes exulting with joy and encouraging each other 
to resist bravely in the struggle. And they encouraged 
the blessed and brave Euphemia that she might attain 
joyfully to the coronation of her confession of the Christ. 
And they said to her, "O brave and persevering one! 
adorn thyself with thy faith, and be courageous in thy 
sound mind. And like a wise woman who has put on the 
Christ, receive the victory with all the fathers, whilst thou 
boldest an unquenchable lamp. Be fortunate in being 
numbered with the five virgins, those who carried their 
lamps with joy before the bridegroom, He who will 
return a full reward in the kingdom of heaven." And 
when the nineteen days of the labour of the conflict of the 
blessed martyrs were fulfilled, and they were in the prison 
nourished by the Holy Spirit ; on the twentieth day an 
idea occurred to Priscus the Proconsul, suggested by the 


wicked Apellianus, whose mind was also like his name. 
And he prepared himself for the interrogation of the blessed 
martyrs. And whilst he was sitting on his judgment seat, 
he commanded and they called the noble ones, whilst the 
blessed Euphemia was in the midst of them like a lamp. 
And the Proconsul asked them, saying, " Tell me, O young 
men ! Have ye felt these tortures and will ye be persuaded 
to sacrifice to the great god Ares ?" And they said to the 
judge as with one voice with the noble Euphemia : " How f. 140 b 
long, O Proconsul! art thou possessed by vanity? when 
wilt thou not turn from the error which has taken hold of 
thee? that thou mayest know God thy Creator." 

Then Priscus commanded those soldiers of Satan to 
strike the blessed ones on their cheeks and say to them, 
" Be persuaded and sacrifice to the great God Ares." And 
the soldiers did 1 as they were commanded. And when 
they had struck those blessed ones on their cheeks, their 
faces shone all the more ; and those soldiers were power- 
less, and left off beating the blessed ones, and became as 
dead people. 

And Apellianus, who was of the household of Satan, he 
who was perfect in the idea of the devil's error, said to the 
Proconsul, " Pronounce the condemnation of these people, 
and send them to the Emperor." And this speech pleased 
the Proconsul and all his companions. And he commanded 
that they should be cast into the prison-house, and should 
be kept carefully until it should be the will of the 
Proconsul that they should be sent to the Emperor. And 
the number of them all was forty-nine. And the blessed 
Euphemia was with them also, And when they had come 
into the prison-house, Sudrinus the disturber and robber 
came like a thief and like a wolf who fell upon the flock, 
and snatched away the bravest and strongest of heart, 

1 Cod. " did to the blessed ones." 
L. E. U 


Euphemia alone, imagining that he would find her like a 
loosened garment But the beloved of the Christ was 
covered with joy, and she raised her eyes to heaven 
f, 141 a saying, " My Lord and my God, Jesus the Christ, Thou art 
my hope, and let not the work of Thy handmaiden who 
is before Thee perish." 

And when Priscus heard [it] he said to her, " Honour 
thyself and know the splendour of thy race. And do not 
thyself destroy thyself: But thou hast been seduced by 
false words like a woman. Turn now and sacrifice to the 
great god Ares/' But the noble and pure woman said, 
tt The strength of athleticism is not weakened by the weak 
nature of a woman ; but by the preservation of the body 
the defects of sickness are filled up, for by my nature I 
stand like a man, that I may be worthy to receive the 
promises of my fathers." 

And Priscus the Proconsul was troubled in his mind 
that he was overcome by a woman. And he commanded 
that a machine should be arranged on wheels, and that the 
blessed one should be thrown amongst them; so that 
whilst she was stretched out on the machine, and was 
crushed by it, she should quickly give up the ghost. But 
when she was thrown amongst the wheels, she marked the 
sign of the Christ in the shape of a cross on her breast, 
saying, "0 chief of iniquity! how many torments has the 
enemy of truth poured out in Priscus the murderer? 
Behold! he sits in accusation and imagines the art of 
the devil, celebrating the mysteries of his father Satan, 
as the enemy of the truth. doer of evil and deceitful 
man ! The torments of thine art do not touch the limbs 
of my soul ; because I have the Christ helping me. And 
141 b I hope that by means of great and sore tortures I may 
show to all men the endurance of the struggle whilst 
I am worshipping." 


And when the blessed Euphemia said these things, 
those soldiers of wickedness turned the wheels upon hen 
And whilst every one of her limbs was broken with the 
crushing of the wheels, the health of her soul was longing 
and was offering thanks to God, saying, "Let Thy goodness 
and the light of Thy truth be with me. Thou who hidest 
with Thyself 1 those who call upon Thee 8 in truth, turn 
to Thy weak and stricken handmaiden and save me from 
this abyss of that wicked and bad and devilish one, and 
from the threat of Priscus, this hater of good things." 

And when she had said these things, immediately an 
angel of the Lord descended from Heaven and broke 
these wheeled machines, and dislocated the limbs of these 
soldiers, so that they were supposed to be other people 
from their appearance. And the blessed and victorious 
one emerged without a single stain. And her cheerfulness 
was seen in the presence of all men. And the Proconsul 
said, "By the victorious fortune of the Emperor, and 
by the good-will of the gods towards us, I swear that 
if thou dost not sacrifice to the great god Ares, I will 
destroy all thy body with fire; and thy God shall not 
help thee, He whom thou dost hope to serve." But the 
blessed Euphemia answered and said unto him, " This fire 
with which thou threatenest me, is one which fills up a 
moment in burning and is immediately quenched. But I f. 142 a 
am not weak enough to fear thy threats." Then the blessed 
one answered again and said to Priscus : " Have not these 
noble champions been thrown into prison for the love of 
the Christ by thy wicked command ? I fear not thy fire, 
because the Christ is with me. He it is who helps me. 
But I trample upon thy threats/' 

And the Proconsul wondered and was astonished at 
her; and he commanded that the furnace should be kindled 

1 MS. "He who hides with Himself." s MS. "Him." 


until it should shoot up flames of fire to about forty-five 
cubits with great strength ; and that other soldiers should 
bring Euphemia. And when they had brought her, she 
stood up resplendent, with a cheerful countenance and a 
whole body and said, "Blessed art thou, God, who 
dwellest on high, and beholdest in the depth; Thou 1 whom 
the angels praise, and the archangels worship. I the 
little, lowly woman supplicate before Thee, because I am 
persuaded by the excellence of Thy grace, and I seal 
myself with Thy victorious name ; that I may find the 
redemption of Thy Christ. Thou art He who didst mani- 
fest and send Thine angel to the three children in the 
f. 142 b furnace. And Thou didst scatter from them the strength 
of the great flames, and didst change the threatening of 
the Babylonians to peace. Show also to my humility the 
help that is from Thyself, and deliver me from the mouth 
of this cruel lion ; and from the net of this wicked hunter, 
and from the threatening of Priscus this Proconsul. For 
Thy name is glorious and holy for ever." 

And when she had said these things, the Proconsul 
commanded those soldiers to bind her and to throw her 
into the fire. And the soldiers bound her carefully. And 
they laid hold of the blessed one. But one of the soldiers 
whose name was Sosthenes, whilst he was holding his 
girdle in his hand, approached the Proconsul and said to 
him, " Command, O Proconsul, that I be bound with this 
girdle. For I am not able to stretch out my hand against 
this blessed one. For behold ! I see before my eyes great 
hosts carrying lamps of light, and looking out for when 
they may receive her." 

And Victor, a soldier who had turned to the knowledge 
of the truth and had loosened the chains of the blessed one 
from her, when he said to the Proconsul, " I implore of 
1 MS. " He." 


thee, Proconsul, to absolve me from the commandment 
of thy violence ; for it is hard for me to stretch forth my 
hands against this holy one. For behold ! I have seen on 
the edge of the furnace men who were standing and f. 143 a 
scattering the fire and watching that this blessed one 
should be kept without a blemish." 

And the Proconsul commanded that those ones should 
be guarded, and that other soldiers should stand up. But 
one came whose name was Caesar, and another, Barbessus, 
and they caught up the blessed one, and flung her into the 
fire. And immediately the servants of the Only Son of 
God received her, the angels holding lamps of the light of 
peace. And they extinguished the flame of the fire. 
And that fire turned upon the soldier whose name was 
Caesar, and devoured him. And after the fire had de- 
voured Caesar the soldier of the Proconsul, the blessed one 
stood up in the midst of the furnace, as in a beautiful 
temple of great glory. And she saw the Christ our 
glorious Lord; and she stretched out her hands towards 
Him and said, "Blessed art Thou, O Lord God of rny 
fathers, who in Thy gracious and passionless Divinity hast 
not neglected Thy lowly handmaiden, and hast extended 
and exalted Thy true name in every place: and hast 
established the splendour of Thy faith. And hast chased 
away the tempest of wickedness; and hast illuminated 
and increased Thy righteousness by me. And in upright- 
ness by Thy Holy Spirit Thou hast charmed away from 
us the cursed serpent, and by the skilfulness of Thy many 
miracles Thou hast crowned those who put their trust in 
Thee. Grant to me that by Thy will I may triumph 
in Thy presence; and that I may be worthy to be numbered 
with those who worship Thee in truth." 

And when she had said these things, she went out from 
the furnace unhurt ; being commended to those of the 


soldiers who believed in the Christ ; the King of truth. 
f. 143 b And the Proconsul commanded, " Throw the blessed one 
into the prison-house that she may be guarded there with 
the prisoners, till the next day," whilst he was full of his 
threat of the wicked device as to how he should destroy 
the handmaid of God. But the blessed one went from 
his presence to the prison-house, giving glory to God. 

And the noble soldiers of the Christ rejoiced in the 
triumph of the blessed one, and gave glory to God, saying, 
"Blessed be Thou, God! for ever and ever, Amen. Grant 
to Thy servant, Lord! that she may be worthy to testify 
with all the fathers, those who were worthy to be martyred 
and were put to death for the sake of Thy holy name." 


Again on the following day the Proconsul went forth 
and sat on his judgment seat; and he commanded them to 
bring Sosthenes and Victor before him, the soldiers who 
believed in the Christ And he said to them, " Sacrifice 
to the gods" But they answered and said to him, " O 
Proconsul, we have surely erred from of old by the instiga- 
tion of the enemy of mankind, whom thou worshippest ; 
and for a certain time we have worshipped him, and we 
have destroyed our hope towards the true God. But we 
believe now in Him who has enlightened the dark eyes 
of our heart, by means 'of His handmaiden the blessed 
Euphemia. Who is able to wipe out the record of our 
debts. He who was with us in the trouble of the enemy 
of the truth, we believe that He is able to inscribe us [as] 
f. 144 a citizens of the Holy City, in the Book of Life. Do then 
what thou wilt with eagerness, the works of thy father 
Satan, and torture us, because we do not assent to thine 
error, and we do not receive the commandment of the 


Emperor, who commands that he be worshipped ; because 
he is a servant of the living God, and we do not worship 
impure and false gods/' 

And when the Proconsul had heard these things from 
them, he commanded that a [bear?] should come, and that 
the blessed ones should be thrown to it, so that their 
bodies might be devoured by it And the two were 
immediately thrown together to it. And they began to 
speak thus, and to give glory to the Lord Almighty, the 
Pure and Holy One. " He who hath established all works 
with wisdom ; and by His powerful word assembleth the 
host of the seas; and by His commandment He hath 
established the earth ; and He hath separated the darkness 
from the light ; He who slew the murdering dragon, and 
loosed the bands of death by the murder of the Crucified 
One. Loose us also now from the pangs of corruption ; 
and deliver us from the laceration of the manslayer, and 
grant to us that we may honour Thy holy name in peace 
without blemish and without spot of soul or of body." 
And immediately there was a voice from heaven, saying, 
" I have heard your prayer, and have received your inter- 
cession." And these ones, when they heard the voice, 
committed their souls the more to God. And when they 
were thrown to the wild, destroying beast, they immediately f. 1445 
committed their spirits to God, and received Him whom 
they loved with joy, because of whom the blessed ones 
had died 1 . 

And when the Proconsul saw what had happened to 
the blessed ones, he arose immediately and went to his 
Praetorium. And the Christians, who happened to be 
there, took the bodies and wrapped them up and buried 
them 2 in the earth in a fair covering. 

1 Literally, "had been crowned.'* 
3 MS. "their bodies." 


And when it was dawn, the Proconsul arose, and went 
out that he might go and hear the blessed Euphemia. 
And when she emerged from the prison-house, she went 
like an innocent lamb of the Christ and said with a clear 
voice : " I give Thee glory, O Lord ! with a new song upon 
this earth. I extol Thee, O Lord ! with all my strength, I 
sing a psalm to Thee, giving glory to Thy name amongst 
all peoples." And when she had prayed and had finished, 
she came and stood before the judgment seat of the 

And the Proconsul began to interrogate her, saying to 
her, " How long wilt thou be a fool ? and how long wilt 
thou destroy thyself in this manner? for the great god, 
the Emperor, desires to be reconciled to thee, if thou 
wilt also do his will, and wilt sacrifice to Ares, to whom 
he also sacrifices. Be persuaded therefore by me and 
sacrifice, that thou mayest live. And in the world thou 
shalt be a mother of many." But she laughed, and 
f. 145 a answered, saying to him, "Truly I would have no mind 
and no sense, if I were to do what thou desirest ; and were 
to hearken to the Emperor, and to worship those who are 
no gods by nature, and were to sacrifice to those dumb 
and voiceless idols, wicked and senseless man! and 
were to renounce all the beauty that is in the Christ, and 
were to rush into the snare of Satan. Thou art eager to 
make me in thy fashion like unto thyself, who art the 
heir of hell and everlasting quenchless fire. And thou 
pervertest the servants of God from the truth. For the 
strength of the Christ is with me, and I believe that He 
helps me at all times." 

And the Proconsul commanded that they should bring 
four great stones, and should fix great instruments at 
the corners of the stones, and that the blessed one should 
be thrown into the midst of them. And when these stones 


were shaken by the instruments by being moved to and 
fro, they should tear the body of the blessed one. 

And the instruments were arranged, and he commanded 
that she should go in amongst them chained And when 
the lamb 1 of the Christ went in amongst these stones, she 
knelt on her knees, and implored with many tears and 
besought God, saying, " I beseech Thee, O Lord my 
God ! and I pour out my soul before Thee, prostrate 
before Thee and I offer my lowliness, and I shed my tears, isa. i. 6 
my back is ready for smiting, and I withdraw not my face 
from spitting. I call upon Thy name, and I take refuge 
in Thy true fear. Have mercy upon Thy handmaiden, 
and leave me 2 not to this destruction which the craft and f. 145 b 
wickedness of the evil one has prepared against me. I 
may be stripped of all wicked things, rny thoughts shall 
be purified from uncleanness, men shall be amazed at 
Thy help; let not his wiles have power on the spiritual 
cymbals of my soul. Let my purity 3 shine, O Lord ! in 
the world, that Thy name may be glorified for ever." The 
noble woman said all these things while she was kneeling 
in her prayer. And the lictors worked till they were 
wearied, hanging on the contrivance of the wheels, and 
not one of them moved from its place ; but they and the 
wheels became like fine chaff. And she was found as a 
lamb without blemish ; and the judge and those who were 
with him contemplated the brightness of her face. And 
after all these contrivances which they had sought out in 
wickedness, the judge commanded them to dig a deep 
place, and to surround it with water as with a wall, and to 
cast evil beasts therein ; and to shut up the noble woman 
there, and when the beasts should leap from the water, 
they should destroy Euphemia with vehemence. 

1 MS. "Calf." 3 Literally "her." 

3 Or "victory." 

L. E. X 


And when the blessed one knew it, she was prepared 
for the place, and the waters were pressed together ; and 
the beasts were flung in before the wicked man com- 
manded it. 

And the holy Euphemia ran, and stood "on the edge of 
the lake of water. And she sealed herself with the sign of 
the cross, and said to the judge with a loud voice, " liar 
far from the truth ! wily man, disciple of Satan, thou art 
well called by this name, saws (driven by) water are 
prepared for thee, which when they receive thee with 
anger, shall dislocate all thy limbs; because thou hast 
embittered the God who made thee, the Giver of life and 
f. 146 a light, and hast contemned the worshippers of the Christ. 
And when the blessed one had said these things, she 
signed herself with the cross on the right hand and on the 
left, and cried to God her deliverer. And she looked up 1 
to heaven, " Christ the light of my soul ! be with Thy 
handmaiden to-day, and deliver me as Thou didst deliver 
Daniel in the den, and like Jonah in the belly of the fish." 

And when she had finished speaking, she threw herself 
into the midst of the water. And when all these beasts 
perceived her, they ran to meet her with joy ; and they 
carried her and lifted her up above the water. And they 
rocked her like a nurse her darling, for they were greatly 
restrained by the fear of God. 

Then when the Proconsul saw the great and powerful 
miracles that had happened, he said to Apellianus, the 
pagan and sophist, "What is that power? and who is it 
that helps this woman? for as I have seen, the demons 
obey her, and she conquers every one by her sorceries." 
The Proconsul said, " And how do the gods endure to see 
these things, and they do not take vengeance." 

1 Literally "stretched her look." 


Apellianus said, " Because in their mercy they do not 
take vengeance." 

The judge said, " Let swords and sharp stones be fixed 
in the earth, and let no[thing] be seen above them. And 
when Euphemia comes confidently, and is walking as on 
plain ground, she will trample on the swords, and will fall 
there on the stones and die like a wild boar." He com- 
manded therefore, and his soldiers completed the con- 
trivance of the wicked one. And when they had completed 
the arrangement according to the commandment of the 
Proconsul, the blessed Euphemia came with joy and cheer- f. 146 b 
fulness, as one who had borne all these things, and yet 
did not fail of the truth of Jesus the Christ her Lord. 
And when she had borne all these afflictions, while these 
soldiers of wickedness were provoking her, that she might 
run to that place, the angels snatched her up and trans- 
ported her over that place quite unhurt, and those soldiers 
fell into what they had fabricated for the blessed one ; and 
they died by the work of their own hands. 

And again the blessed one opened her mouth and gave 
glory and said, " Thou God, knowest what is in the hearts of 
all, Thou art He in whose presence are all secrets. Giver 
of treasures that cannot be spoiled, and of heavenly promises, 
Who hast stretched out the earth and established it upon 
nothing, and by Thy word hast appointed all works. And 
Thou hast created the light, and caused it to shine upon 
all. Thou 1 who by Thy good-will didst send Thine only 
Son, our Lord Jesus the Christ from heaven to loose the 
bands of death ; and to bind and to subjugate the chiefs 
and the worshippers of error. Thou 1 who art near to Thy 
worshippers, to those who stand in the conflict for the sake 
of Thy name. And Thou art a helper to them in all their 

1 MS. "He." 


afflictions. Help Thy handmaiden also now, and by the 
prayers of those blessed and holy ones who have been 
thrown into the prison because of Thy divine name 1 , and 
are hoping to finish their divine course, deliver me also, 
Thy handmaiden, and keep me in the one harmony with 
Thy Holy Spirit, because Thou art God. For Thou 
keepest not anger and Thou dost save in the times of 

And when the Proconsul saw these things, he com- 
manded them to bring the holy woman before his judg- 
ment-seat. And he answered and said unto her, "Dost 
thou know, Euphemia ! that whilst thou art of a very 
great and distinguished family, thou hast been led into error 
and hast remained in it until now? And I who am a 
governor keeping what is right for the Emperor, thou 
standest against me, truly, like a wise and skilful woman. 
But nevertheless now at least be persuaded by me. And 
forgive me these insults and torments which I have made 
thee endure, and sacrifice to the gods, and be not a 
reproach of all men; and remain in thy distinguished 

But the blessed one, because her mind was established 
in the Christ, answered and said to the tyrant, "Why do 
I see that thy face is full of bitterness and guile ? O 
workman who composes with ornamented words! O 
wolf clothed in sheep's clothing while he does the works 
of destruction ! and wicked robber, proffering words that 
are sweet to hear, but in their sequel they are more 
bitter than wormwood. I am not foolish to such a 
degree, that I should leave Him, the treasure of life, and 
should be allied to the bitterness of the devil. Therefore 
be not deceived, Proconsul! because. thou canst not 

1 Literally "the name of Thy divinity." 


persuade me to sacrifice to foul fiends; and thou canst 

not force my will, that I should call those gods who 

are no gods. For how can they be called gods who have 

never been so ? and how dost thou not perceive that thou f. 147 b 

comparest with the life that is eternal a dead thing which 

never existed, and commandest us to offer a sacrifice 

to it I am not persuaded by thy words, which are full of 

bitterness. Be eager therefore and do what thou wilt; 

for I am eager that I may be made worthy by means of 

thy wicked wiles of the everlasting victory. Where the 

Father is, where the Creator of the angels is, where the 

Giver of the crowns of victory is ; there is the anointing 

of the truth; there is also the Christ who crowns His 

champions; there is also the Holy Spirit, He who 

strengthens those who endure afflictions for His sake." 

And the Proconsul was angry when he heard these 
things, and he commanded that they should scourge the 
blessed one with rods, saying to her, " Be persuaded, and 
sacrifice to the gods." But whilst she was being scourged, 
she spake thus : 

" Thy tortures do not come upon me, wicked man ! 
Thou art parted from life and thou hast no permanent 
abode. For thou art weak, because thy tyrannical power 
is conquered." 

But Apellianus and the Proconsul with him recollected 
in their mind ; and the judge commanded that they should 
bring sharp saws and pans of fire, and that the saws 
should, by the construction of their instruments cut up the 
blessed one and fling her limbs into the pans of fire, that 
thus she might be pounded to pieces like fine ashes. And 
when those instruments were arranged in that manner f I4 g a 
of contrivance, they brought the blessed Euphemia, and 
threw her amongst the saws, and the saws were turned 
about, and were scattered ; also the pans of fire that were 


fixed amongst them were quenched, and no hurt came 
to her from any of these things, because the angels of 
God kept close to her for her assistance. And when 
the Proconsul and Apellianus his friend saw that this wor- 
shipper of the Christ was victorious over all their afflictions 
and torments, they took counsel amongst themselves how 
they might destroy the holy one, and they invited the 
city to the theatre which is called the arena where beasts 
are let loose for the Stadium. And when she stood 
in the midst of the Stadium, she began to say, "Thou 
art near, Lord! to those who call upon Thee in 
truth. Receive my spirit to Thyself, as Thou didst receive 
the sacrifice of our father Abraham; so also do Thou 
receive the sacrifice of my spirit to Thyself." And whilst 
she said this, she sealed herself on all sides, calling on the 
name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. 
And four lions were loosed against her, with two other evil 
beasts. And these lions leapt upon her with a run. And 
they kissed the foot-prints of the blessed one. And the 
other beasts did so likewise. And thus was finished the 
martyrdom and the conflict of the blessed one. One of 
these beasts ran, and bit her on her shoulder only : and 
f. 148 b immediately a voice was heard a voice from heaven 
saying, " Ascend on high Euphemia ! climb and stand 
in the place of the saints, and receive thy victory, and 
the reward of thy finished course." 

And when this voice was heard, there was a great 
earthquake, so that all the place was shaken, and every 
one was seized with trembling. And the blessed one said, 
"Requite, O Lord! also this unclean Proconsul according 
to his wickedness, and enter into the conflict along with 
Thy holy servants, O Thou, my God and my Lord ! and 
justify them." And when she had said these things, she 
committed her soul into the hands of her Lord. And her 


father Philophron entered with her mother ; and they took 
her holy body, and carried it far away, and they buried 
it in a lonely place, which they had arranged for it, 
which was about one mile distant from the city of Chal- 

And the Proconsul sent those blessed ones who had 
been thrown into prison with the Blessed One to the 
Emperor with an epistle ; that the Emperor might com- 
mand whatsoever he willed about them. And he com- 
manded those cavalry soldiers that they should convoy 
them peacefully on the way; and keep them until they 
should go before the Emperor. For the Proconsul fell 
into a sore sickness, and was bitterly tormented according 
to the word of the Blessed One which she spake to him. 

Here endeth the martyrdom of the Holy Euphemia. 


B. M. THE Memoirs of the noble women who were crowned 

in their martyrdom for our Lord, of Pistis, and of Elpis, 
and of Agape, and of their mother Sophia in the city 
of Rome. 

By the grace of God was the gospel sown abroad 
under the heaven throughout all the earth, by Jesus 
Christ the Saviour of all men; that every man might 
believe in God the Almighty: and in Jesus the Christ 
the Only Son, and in the Living and Holy Spirit, and 
that every man might be drawn away from the worship 
of idols, and from vain error ; and that they might receive 
help for their souls by the baptism of holiness for the 
remission of sins. 

And when this word was preached by the Apostles, 
and by all the Evangelists, all regions ran joyfully and 
kissed the feet of the Apostles in faith. For many and 
noble were the doctrines of the truth and by means of 
them we have all come to the right way. 

And there was a certain woman of a great family of 
the house of Sallustius ; and her name was Sophia. This 
woman went up to the city of Rome, with her three 
beautiful virgin-daughters ; and they hoped to receive the 
sign of the Christ our Redeemer. And her daughters had 
been reared in wisdom and in the grace of God. And 

SOPHIA. 169 

their mother rejoiced greatly and gave glory to God, when 

she found His love 1 in the heart of her daughters. And 

she prayed to her Lord that He would send help to His 

handmaidens. And whilst these virgins were strengthened f. 149 b 

in the fear of God, and were constant in prayer and in 

vigil, it was known by the mind of all men that they 

were shewing the life of the martyrs and of the Apostles 

in the years of girlhood. For they went according to their 

custom on the first day of the week to pray in the house 

of God. And of a sudden Satan disturbed the heart of Add. 17,204 

Antiochus (one) of the rulers of the city; and he said f ' 23b 

in the presence of the Emperor Hadrian, "A certain 

woman and her three daughters whence they are we 

know not are teaching the women every day to worship 

one God, and His Son Jesus the Christ, and that we should 

become strangers to our wives : for they touch neither 

food nor drink, and they do not go away from these 

virgins : and thus they are separated, that they may even 

wipe out the praise of our gods from the earth." 

And when the Emperor Hadrian heard these things 
he sent the guards after them; and they laid hold on 
them, and brought them to the palace of the Emperor. 
And these faithful women, the virgins of the Christ, went 
joyfully with their mother, holding each other's hands, and 
when they had arrived at the door of the palace, all of 
them made the sign of the cross on their breasts. And 
these virgins were so beautiful that none of the onlookers 
was able to come near them and look on their faces ; but 
they only contemplated (them) as in a mirror. And the f. 150 a 
grace of God was also poured out upon the virgins. Add. 17,204 

And when they, had entered the palace and stood 
before the Ernperor, he raised his eyes to look at them and 
at the loveliness of their faces, because he wondered at the 

1 Literally "the love of God." 
L. E. Y 

1 70 SOPHIA. 

glory of their beauty, and at that moment he was unable 
to interrogate them. But after a little while he came to 
himself, and he replied and said to their mother, " Who art 
thou, O woman? and whence comest thou? that thou 
hast thus disturbed all Rome? for thou hast denied the 
gods, the governors of the whole world. And what is thy 
name, tell us ? " 

She returned an answer and said, " I am a Christian/' 

The Emperor said, " I did not ask thee this, but ' What 
is thy name?'" 

And the handmaiden of God returned an answer in 
truth, "The people who gave me birth called my name 
Sophia ; but the full name is ' I am a Christian/ of the 
stock of the chiefs and nobles of the city of Italy, but the 
mercy of the Christ has redeemed me and my daughters 
Add. 17,304 and brought us to the city of Rome, that I may present 
before Him the fruits which His grace has given me, and 
may present them with joy an offering to the Lord." 

And when the Emperor heard these things he com- 
manded that she and her daughters should be with one of 
the chiefs until there should be an interrogation. And 
the faithful woman Sophia gave counsel to her noble 
daughters, saying, " Hearken to your mother, my beloved 
daughters, I reared you (in what concerns) your stature, 
f. i5b and I taught you all letters. Now the hope for which ye 
look, and the grace which ye love, calls you to Him. 
Look not at the childishness of your years, nor at the 
superb beauty of your faces. Clothe your mind with 
heavenly armour, and be strong with the breastplate of 
the Spirit, and place a crown upon your mother by 
your endurance. Withstand the persecutors. And for 
your sakes, my beloved ones, my soul may be purified 
from iniquity. For if ye go before me, and stand in the 
presence of the Heavenly King, it will be known to all 


men in the kingdom of heaven, and those who please 
God will present me for your sakes, and I shall be with 
you in the life that never passes away. My beloved 
daughters, the hidden darlings of the foster-mother, and 
the fair nestlings of my womb, have pity on your mother 
who has endured pains because of you : and be strong and 
firm before the tortures of the persecutor. Confess one God, 
and the Lord Jesus Christ, and the Living and Holy Spirit, 
for He will repay you with the crowns of endurance. 
" Hearken to me and wonder. Woe is me ! " 
And when the mother had sowed these sayings in her 
daughters, they were strengthened by the Holy Spirit, and 
were the more filled with wisdom. And the one encou- 
raged the other and filled the other with wisdom. And 
every hour they made (the sign of) the cross of the Christ 
on the breasts and between the eyes ; and they were 
constant in prayer and intercession, and were longing to Add. 17,204 
receive the crown of victory. And they said to their 
mother in concert, " mistress of daughters, the blessed 
mother of us all, let not thy mind doubt concerning the 151 a 
faith of thine offspring 1 . But offer joyfully the children 
of thy womb to God. And thou shalt behold our en- 
durance and our confession. For the Christ our Redeemer, 
the teaching of whose scriptures is in our minds, He who 
beholds from Heaven, adorns us with wisdom and with 
faith ; and gives us a response in the presence of the king 
in judgment." And when their mother had heard the 
readiness of their heart she said, "I gave birth to you 
three, my beloved daughters, listen to the voice of my 
words : The life of this world is for a short time. May 
the most loving of mothers strengthen your minds a little, 
may the kingdom of heaven be yours 1 and I will follow 
you joyfully in the pride of my mind, and with the praises 
i Literally "fruit." 

172 SOPHIA. 

of my soul, and I will offer to God the perfect sacrifice of 
your victory/* 

And after three days the Emperor commanded that 
they should bring them. And when these virgins went 
their mother also followed them joyfully. And when they 
entered the palace, and stood before the judgment-seat of 
the Emperor, he answered and said to the three noble 
sisters, "Q lovely girls! lo! I see your beauty, and I 
contemplate in the likeness of your faces that it is not 
approaching to the nature of man, but it is another glory, 
which is in its light like the brilliance of the sun. I 
also see your stature, that ye are of very tender years. 
Therefore I counsel you to have mercy on the old age 
f. 151 b of your mother and on the desirable vision of your appear- 
ance. Be persuaded by me, as by a father, and sacrifice 
to our lords, the gods, and if ye hearken to my .word, 
and offer sacrifices to the gods, ye shall be called the 
daughters of the king. Ye shall find bliss and luxury : 
and ye shall have fame like the daughters of the king. 
For the Eparchs shall enter my presence, the governors 
and the chiefs, all the senate shall be summoned, and all 
the armies of my dominion, and a deed of adoption shall 
be signed according to the law. 

" But if ye will not submit to me, nor hearken to my 
word, ye shall be delivered up to bitter torments. . I will 
fling the beauty of your faces, and the pride of your limbs 
to the dogs. Therefore submit to my words before all 
these things come to pass. For because ye are of a dis- 
tinguished race, for this reason ye shall be called the 
daughters of the king." 

The glorious virgins replied and said to the Emperor 
with one voice, " Thy promises are very vain, and they are 
not necessary to the handmaidens of God. We know Him 
who has brought us up, God the King of the worlds, the 

SOPHIA. 173 

Maker of heaven and of earth, of the seas, and of the 
depths below, that He will receive us as beloved children. 
For the armour of our conscience is formed from our 
youth and our mind is made strong in hope. There is 
a power within us to withstand against thy devices, and to f. 152 a 
conquer all thy interrogations, and we shall enter joyfully 
on the road to the skies 1 , and the door of heaven will 
be opened before us ; and we shall enter joyfully and shall 
worship the King, the Christ. Produce therefore all thy 
tortures, that by the trial of our endurance the long- 
suffering of God, and of Jesus the Christ, our Redeemer, 
may be made known ; for He will help His handmaidens 
in the conflict/' Then the Emperor was filled with rage, 
and called Sophia, the mother of the maidens, and said 
to her, "What are your daughters called? tell me their 
names, and tell me their ages." 

And their mother answered, saying, " The name of my 
eldest daughter is Pistis, twelve years old. And the name 
of the second is Elpis, ten years old. And the name of 
my youngest daughter is Agape, seven years old. And 
these names being interpreted in Aramaic, are Faith, 
and Hope, and Love. And the name of their "mother is 
Sophia; which being interpreted, is Wisdom/' And the 
Emperor answered, saying to Pistis, who was the eldest of 
the 2 sisters, "Sacrifice to the goddess Artemis, whose 
interpretation is Beltis; and contemplate her appear- 
ance, for she is the patroness of Beauty." And Pistis 
(Faith) answered, saying, " O the blindness of man's mind ! 
Shall we forsake the God who made everything by His 
word? and Jesus the Christ our Redeemer? And shall f. 
we worship senseless idols, and speechless stones ? " 

And when the Emperor heard these things, he com- 

1 Literally " the height." 
2 MS. "her." 

174 SOPHIA. 

manded that they should strip her of her clothes, and 
should scourge her with rods until she should 'sacrifice. 
And when twelve men scourged her by turns, not a scar 
was found on her body. And when the Emperor saw 
that no stripes were visible on her body he commanded 
them to cut off the fountains of her milk with the sword. 
But the great crowd who were standing for the spectacle 
saw the tender age and the beauty of the maiden who 
received these tortures ; and they all wailed, weeping and 
saying, "These maidens have been judged iniquitously. 
The punishments of the Emperor are bitter, and his 
commandments are unjust." And when the breasts of 
the maiden had been cut off, they threw them on the 
ground before her eyes. But the places from which they 
had been cut off flowed with milk instead of with blood. 
And when all the crowd of the Romans saw these wonders, 
they gave glory to God. And the virgin of the Christ 
said to him, "0 judge, thy tortures are very slight, 
and my limbs do not feel thy scourges. And even the 
members wliich have been cut off from me, instead of 
running with blood, are fountains that flow with milk. 
And I pray much that by means of the devices of thy 
jmaginings I may be confirmed in the knowledge of the 
f. 1 53 a Christ Hearken therefore, O unjust man, wicked dis- 
ciple of Satan, for if thou hast commanded that they 
should disfigure even the image of my face, not even thus 
will I be frightened, for thou wilt be punished for all these 
things in the day of judgment But I stand for the truth 
of my faith, and I do not deny my Lord." 

Then the Emperor commanded, and they brought a 
gridiron of iron, and they kindled a fire below it, until it 
was all aflame. And they brought the faithful one, and 
threw her on the top of the gridiron. And the noble 
virgin was like a ship on a calm sea, which the storms 

SOPHIA. 175 

do not touch. And she prayed with a loud voice, saying, 
" O Lord the Christ ! look upon the low estate of Thy 
handmaiden, and give me the victory over the fiery flame. 
And preserve me spotless before Thee; may I resist the 
devices of the persecutor." 

And when three days had passed away, whilst the girl 
was lying on the top of the fire (and she never ceased 
praying), the Emperor commanded that the gridiron should 
be taken away, and that a frying-pan should be set up 
instead of it, and that they should throw oil and wax, and f- 
pitch into the frying-pan. And when they were thrown 
together into the frying-pan, it 1 boiled and flamed with the 
burning of the fire. But the noble woman looked [up] 
to heaven, and cried to Jesus the Son of God, and before 
the king had commanded she threw herself into the midst 
of the frying-pan ; and immediately the flame was quieted, 
and the fire was quenched ; and the frying-pan froze like 
ice; and the handmaiden of God was glad there, and 
despised the devices of them all. For God helped His 
handmaiden. And when the Emperor saw that she had 
not died with all these tortures, and was not persuaded 
to sacrifice, he was much grieved, and meditated by what 
means he should destroy her. And he thought that he 
would slay her with the sword. And when she had heard 
that the king had commanded thus, she besought her 
mother joyfully to pray without ceasing, that the com- 
mandment of the Emperor might be speedily fulfilled. And 
the noble woman said to her sisters, "O beloved ones! 
daughters of the same womb, beloved of a faithful mother ! 
ye see Him whom our souls have confessed, and before f- 154 a 
whom we must stand. Be strong therefore in witnessing 
for our Redeemer. For we have been brought up in the 
doctrine, and one mother has given birth to us all. And 

1 Literally "the frying-pan." 

1 76 SOPHIA. 

lo ! she rejoices in the endurance of her offspring to-day, 
and she prays that she may behold our victory. There- 
fore do not let us make God angry, nor vex the love of 
our mother, who has borne pain and distress, and pangs 
and groanings for us one by one, and we have sucked 
the same milk from [her] sacred breasts. And we have 
learned wisdom and the discipline of God. And behold ! 
by grace we are drawing near to inherit eternal life. And 
I am going in a beautiful path ; and I pray that ye 
may come beside me by the same path, in joy and in 
perfect love. But henceforth, my sisters, do ye walk 
in the steps of your sister, that together we may receive the 
promises of the Only Begotten, in the kingdom of heaven." 

And when she had finished speaking, the daughter 
embraced her mother, and kissed her reverently, and she 
besought her to offer prayer on her behalf: and she did 
likewise to her sisters. And she made herself ready for 
the slaughter; and stretched out her neck to the sword. 
And her mother and her sisters encouraged her, saying, 
f, i54b "0 sister of her mother, and mistress of her sisters! 
approach joyfully to the consummation and be not afraid 
of the sword. Go fearlessly on the path of life, and we 
will walk in thy steps. We will fearlessly withstand the 
persecutor; and we shall overcome all his devices. We 
will come and precede thee on the road to the skies. Be 
praying for us, our sister. The road on which thou hast 
gone is greatly to be desired. Thy Lord in heaven waits 
for thee. Remember us also in the kingdom of heaven, 
us thy sisters Elpis and Agape. Pray that we may see 
thee speedily/' 

And again her mother said to her, "1 gave thee birth, 
my daughter, and thou wast reared upon the milk of my 
breasts ; and I endured many distresses for thy sake. Go 
joyfully on the everlasting road. Go, and see the heavenly 

SOPHIA. 177 

light, and prepare a bright place for thy mother, and 
remember her who bare thee, O my daughter!" 

And when the sword was about to fall upon the neck 
of the maiden, she stretched out her holy hands to heaven, 
and prayed with a loud voice, saying, " Glory be to Thee, 
O Lord Jesus the Christ, that Thou hast deemed Thy 
little handmaiden worthy to withstand in the conflict of 
the noble ones. I beseech of Thee, O Lord, remember 
Thy servants and Thy handmaidens, and the little ones, 
and the great ones, the rich and the poor. Remember, 
also Thy handmaiden, my blessed mother, and my beloved 155 a 
sisters who worship Thee. Remember me also, O Lord, 
Thine afflicted and sinful handmaiden, and receive my 
soul into Thy presence because I have confessed Thy 
cross. But do not forgive the wicked man, the perse- 
cutor, the unjust Emperor. But may he be requited, with 
indignation and with ruin, and with Thy rage and with 
fire in this world; and receive the spirit of Thy hand- 
maiden in peace." And when she had finished speaking, 
she stretched out her neck, and received the sword with 
joy. And she wore the crown of the victors. And her 
mother came joyfully, and embraced the body of the 
noble woman, and kissed her, and she praised God with 
a joyful heart. 

But the Emperor Hadrian sent for her second sister, 
whose name was Elpis. And he counselled her, saying, 
" My daughter, be persuaded by me as by thy father, and 
worship the goddess Artemis; and remain alive and do 
not die." 

And the noble woman, Elpis, answered, saying, " Thou 
knowest, Emperor, that thy counsels are very useless, 
and they do not touch the handmaid of God. For 
behold! thou hast learnt by the interrogation that I am 
the sister of the blessed Pistis. And we have sucked the 

L. E. z 

178 SOPHIA. 

same milk. And we had the same training in doctrine. 
And we are ready to go on the one road, and henceforth 
do not deceive thyself with many words, but do what thou 
hast willed to do. For I have hoped in God, and He is 
the stay of my soul, and from Him is the crown of my 
victory ; and my mind will never swerve from beside Him, 
and to Him my thoughts reach." 

And when the Emperor had heard these things, and 
had seen that he was gaining nothing, he commanded 
them to strip the girl of her clothes, and to scourge her 
with ox-hides. And those who scourged her were changed 
to the number of ten men ; and those men striking her 
became tired. 

And her mother stood, saying, " Lord Jesus the Christ ! 
give patience to thy handmaiden as to her elder sister." 
And when her mother had said these things, Elpis said 
with a loud voice, " O Lord God ! before Thee I pour 
out my tears. Give me patience, that I may receive the 
crown of my victory." And to the Emperor she said, 
" most wicked of men ! what dost thou meditate con- 
cerning me? Produce thy tortures quickly, and by the 
very proof thou shalt see who is helping me." 

But the Emperor meditated cunningly in a great rage 
f. 1 56 a as to how he should destroy her; and he commanded that 
she should be cast upon burning coals. But when she was 
thrown upon the fire, she walked on the top of it. But the 
Emperor did not see those who were helping the girl. 
And she raised her voice and said, " O Lord ! turn not Thy 
face away from Thy handmaiden, but grant me that I may 
be made perfect before Thee in the endurance of my mind; 
and may the unjust Emperor be requited with ruin, and 
with the worm that never fails." 

But when the Emperor had heard these things, he 
commanded that they should hang her on a tree, and 

SOPHIA. 179 

destroy her with combs. And whilst the noble Elpis 
was being combed, the flesh from her sacred limbs fell 
away, and was fragrant and pleasant, as (with) choice 
scent, and she stood with a cheerful countenance. And 
the blessed one laughed and said, " O wicked, bad man ! 
as it appears to me as if on thee the combs are descend- 
ing, for I do not feel them; nor will I be persuaded 
to sacrifice." And he commanded again that a cauldron 
should be put on the fire, and should be filled with 
wax and pitch and fat and resin, and that they should 
kindle fire beneath it; and should throw the girl into 
it. And when the cauldron flamed from the kindling 
of the fire, drops from it were leaping, and they carried f. 156 b 
the maiden that they might throw her into it And at 
that moment the copper was melted, and it fell as wax 
is melted before the fire. And it burnt up all the un- 
believers who were standing round. And the Emperor 
was not softened with all these things, but when all his 
devices were overcome, he commanded that she also should 
die by the sword, like her sister. And when the girl heard 
that the decree was issued, she ran to her mother and 
saluted her, saying, " O blessed mother, peace be to thee ! 
and be mindful of thy daughter Elpis." She ran again to 
the body of her holy sister and embraced and kissed her. 
And she approached again to her youngest sister, and 
kissed her and embraced her, saying, "My darling sister, 
and daughter of my beloved mother, come beside us 
speedily. For I also am going on the road to eternity. 
My darling sister and daughter of the same womb, and 
beloved of a believing mother, do not fear the tortures of 
the unjust man. For He who has given us freedom, He 
will send us help. He is the Father of the truth. He is 
the true Lord." And when she had said these things, she 
said again in prayer, "O Lord God, hearken unto Thy 

180 SOPHIA. 

f. 1 57 a handmaiden in joy and in peace." And her mother had 
said in the joy of her heart and in pride about the victory 
of the girl, " My darling sweet daughter Elpis, go with joy 
on 'the road to eternity, and be mindful of thy mother, for 
I gave thee birth/' And when her mother had finished 
saying these things to her, the blessed one bent her neck, 
and went away by the death of the sword. 

But her mother rejoiced while she contemplated the 
crowns of her daughters, and she kissed their 1 corpses and 
said, "I have sent acceptable heralds before me to the 
House of Life." 

And she turned towards her youngest daughter, saying, 
" Agape, my daughter, the most beloved of her sisters 2 , be 
strong and vigorous. Behold I see two crowns prepared 
for thy sisters, and on the head of them both the crown 
of thy childhood appears, and I am hoping to go on the 
road of thy victory. And henceforth be thou strong in 
the name of our Lord Jesus the Christ" 

Then the tyrant called the girl Agape, and interrogated 
her with words. And the noble woman returned an answer, 
saying, " O wicked man and tyrant ! dost thou not know 
that I am the sister of these two who withstood thee in 
the struggle, and received the faith and the crown of 
victory? For one father and one mother gave birth to 
the three; and we sucked one milk equally. We were 
educated in letters and in wisdom, and we increased in 
glorious knowledge. And because of this it is fitting 
that we should conquer together in the struggle." And 
when the mother had heard these things she said, "Thou 
hast well spoken, my daughter. Be strong, and resist with 
vigour. And gird thy loins with the confession of the 
Most High." And when the Emperor 8 had heard these 

1 Literally, " the corpses of her daughters." 
* sic in Cod. * MS. "he." 

SOPHIA. l8l 

things, he was filled with a great rage. And he roared 
like a lion for the prey. And he was altogether merciless. 
And he commanded that she should be stretched out with 
rods, and that the combs should be brought close to her 
body, that while they were dripping and tearing from 
all sides the limbs of the girl should be torn; but the 
damsel did not feel the combs, but her eyes were strained 
towards heaven. 

And he commanded again that after the combs they 
should scourge her with rods. And whilst the girl was 
being beaten 1 , she said, " O tyrant Emperor, why dost thou 
tire (thyself) uselessly? for I do not feel thy tortures." 
And when the Emperor heard (this) he commanded 
them to loose her, and prepare a fiery furnace, that she f. 158 a 
might be flung into it. And when the furnace had been 
kindled for three days, it glowed more than the light 
of brass by its flame. And when the Emperor came to 
the furnace, and saw that it was kindled, he commanded 
them to bring the girl. And she came and stood before 
him, and he answered and said to her, " I request thee to 
say one sentence, 'Great is the goddess Artemis/ And 
when thou shalt have thus spoken, thou shalt speedily 
escape from this distress." 

The noble one answered and said, "O senseless fool 
and ignorant dunce! what dost thou chatter about? for 
because thou hast cut off thy hope from life dost thou 
make these promises?" And the Emperor, in a great 
rage, commanded that she should be flung into the fiery 
furnace. And before they had seized her, she entered the 
furnace joyfully. And in that very hour the fire flew out 
from the furnace to the length and the breadth of sixty 
cubits ; and the worshippers of idols, six thousand, died 
of the flames. But the faithful one walked inside the 
1 Literally " swallowing them." 

1 82 SOPHIA. 

furnace, and praised God, saying, " I extol Thee, Lord ! 
the preserver and saviour of Thy 1 handmaidens, take 
pity upon me, according to Thy mercy, and deliver me 
from the hand of the slayer." And when the Emperor 
heard these things, he was again filled with a great rage. 
But the flame escaped from the furnace, and burnt up his 
body, and flung him upon the earth ; and the life hardly 

f. i$8b remained in him ; and it was dashed about greatly by the 
burning. And he sent the guards after the noble woman, 
that they might bring her again before him. And when 
they arrived at the door of the furnace, they saw three 
men within it, whose raiment was like snow, the light of 
their faces was like the radiance of the sun, the hair of 
their heads was like gold ; and they walked with Agape 
in the midst of the furnace. And these guards fell down 
on their faces from fright: and in their distress they said to 
the noble one, " Come out from the furnace, for behold ! 
the Emperor wants thee." Agape came out, and went 
and stood before the judgment-seat And he commanded 
that they should heat an auger in the fire, and pierce the 
body of the faithful one with it. And when the wicked 
man saw that she despised the many tortures, and con- 
temned the afflictions, and overcame the fire by prayer, 
he commanded that she should die by the sword. The 
noble one opened her mouth and said, "O Lord Jesus 
the Christ! I thank Thee and I praise Thee, that thou 
hast deemed me worthy of the victory of noble men, with 
my two sisters; and hast called me to the delight of 
Paradise. And now I beseech Thee, Lord ! remember 

f* 1 59 a Thy people who worship Thee. Remember also the 
faithful Sophia, my mother, who has stood before Thee 
with joy, and has served Thee splendidly, and on account 
of that make her worthy to remain three days in the world, 

1 Literally, His." 

SOPHIA. 183 

and when she has made a memorial to her daughters 
on the third day, may she also be crowned with her 
daughters, and be buried beside us victoriously. And 
when Thou shalt do this, Lord ! we three sisters will 
praise Thee, and the faithful mother, and we shall be a 
memorial to Thy name for ever." 

And Sophia prayed to God, and said to Agape, " My 
most beloved daughter, go with joy in the path of Thy 
Lord. For I pray for this, that I may offer three virgin 
crowns an offering to the Lord ; and may be remembered 
by my daughters in the kingdom of heaven. For lo ! I see 
thy crown which is perfect in the host of the noble ones." 

And when her mother had finished saying these things 
to her, the noble woman stretched out her neck, and 
received the sword with joy. 

And her mother Sophia embraced and kissed the bodies 
of her three daughters, and clothed [them] splendidly, and 
she yoked a carriage and placed her daughters upon it, and 
she went out of the city to a certain place that is eighteen 
miles from the city. And she placed the bodies of her 
virgin daughters there in a high place carefully; in the 
holy temple of their victory. And on the third day she 
went out to the cemetery that she might carry spices 
according to the custom. And all the free women of 
Rome went out with her, and also a great crowd of men 
and of women. And she poured out spice on the bodies 
of her daughters, and made a great commemoration accord- 
ing to the custom. And when all the crowd were standing, 
she offered a prayer, with sobs to God. 

And when she had finished praying, she stood before 
the bier of her daughters. She opened her mouth and 
said, " My beloved daughters, I also am going with you, 
and I shall be worthy of the crowns of your promises." 

And when she had said these things, in that same hour 

1 84 SOPHIA. 

she committed her soul to God, and slept the sleep of rest. 
And the rich women who were near, placed the blessed 
Sophia in the coffin of her noble daughters. And they 
went together to the Lord, and inherited life eternal. 

Hadrian the unjust Emperor perished with many 
pangs. For the pupils of his eyes fell out, and the flesh 
perished from his bones. His legs were cut up by worms, 
and his hands from his joints, matter came out of his 
mouth, and he was altogether ruined. He cried with a 
loud voice, saying, rt Lord God, who didst help the three 
f. i6oa maidens and their mother, take, my soul from me. For 
I know certainly that I bear this because of these three 
lives." And when he had said these things, he wailed 
with a loud voice, and burst in twain. His flesh was 
scattered from him, and his bones were not found. And 
this happened to him by prophecy, for his wickedness. 

Here endeth the martyrdom of Sophia, and of her three 


AGAIN, the martyrdom of Cyprian the wizard, and of S. P. 
Justa the virgin. f ' I7 a 

At the appearance of our Redeemer, Jesus the Christ 
from heaven upon the earth, and on the fulfilment of the 
words of the prophets, everything beneath the heaven was 
illumined, that they might be baptized into one God the 
Father Almighty, and into the Lord Jesus the Christ, and 
into the Holy Spirit in the belief of the truth. 

Now there was a certain virgin whose name was Justa, 
and the name of her father was Aedesius ; and of her 
mother Cledonia, in the town of Antioch which is near 
Daphne. And this blessed one listened to a certain deacon 
whose name was Praylius, from a window which was near 
her house. And when she heard the great deeds of God, 
and how our Redeemer the Lord Jesus Christ put on a 
body, and the heralding of the prophets, and His birth 
from Mary, and the worship of the Magi ; and about the 
appearance of the star and the praise of the angels, and 
the signs of the miracles that were done in His name and 
by His power ; and of the redemption of the cross; and of Add. 12,142 
His resurrection from the dead ; and of His glory in the 
presence of the disciples ; and of the living words of His 
gospel to His apostles ; and of His ascension to Heaven ; 
and of His being seated on the right hand ; and of His 
imperishable kingdom ; and of the bliss that passeth not 
away, and of the deathless life. 

[And when the blessed one had heard these things, she 
L. E. AA 


marvelled greatly in the belief of the truth, and the eye of 
the maiden sparkled with the love of the Holy Spirit. 
She longed greatly and sought that she might again see 
the deacon Praylius; but she could not (do it) 1 .] She 
answered and said to her mother, "Hearken to thy 
daughter, my mother, and turn from error, and thou shalt 
escape from everlasting torment ; as thou hast heard that 
the scriptures of our Lord Jesus Christ say, He who hath 
made the heaven and the earth and all that is therein. For 
sculptures are nothing. They are of stone, and of wood, 
and of gold, the work of men's hands, images, deaf, and 
blind, and lifeless." Then her mother said to her, " Nay, 
my daughter, let not thy father hear this in thy thoughts." 
But the blessed one answered and said to her mother, 
" Know ye, O my father and my mother, that henceforth I 
am a Christian, and I worship the Christ my Redeemer, 
because by means of this deacon I have learnt the way of 
life And henceforth there is no God except the Father, 
and the Son, and the Holy Ghost. And He gives life to the 
Add. 12,142 men who believe in Him, and He has redeemed them from 
the destruction of the wicked, and has made them to inherit 
deathless life." When she had said these things, she signed 
herself in the Threefold name, and began to pray in the 
name of our Lord Jesus Christ. But her mother told her 
father everything that the blessed one had said. Then 
immediately numberless hosts of angels appeared to them, 
holding lamps of fire in the chamber 1 . And in the midst 
of them they saw the Christ, saying, " Come to Me, I will 
make you enter the kingdom of heaven. With all the holy 
ones who have done well in My presence/' 

And when Aedesius, the father of the girl, saw that 
sight, he was seized with great wonder. And he arose in 
the morning, and led his wife, and his daughter, the blessed 
1 From the Sinai palimpsest. 


one, and they went to the church with that deacon, be- 
seeching him to present them to the bishop. And when 
he presented them, the Bishop received them. And they 
fell at his feet and besought him that he would give them 
the seal of the Christ. But he was unwilling to give 
it to them, until the deacon related to him about the 
vision of the Christ which he had seen, and about the faith 
and the love to the Christ of the maiden. 

But Aedesius shaved his hair because he was a priest Add. 12,142 

f . 75 a 
of the gods ; and he fell at the feet of the Bishop, and 

he gave to the three the seal of the Christ. And the holy 
Aedesius was deemed worthy of the priesthood, and he 
lived a short time, and went to rest in the true faith. And 
the holy virgin went at all seasons to the church of the 
Christ. But a certain man, a lawyer of a great family, 
who was evil in his deeds, and who was enchained in the 
worship of error, of dead images, saw the blessed one 
going at all seasons to the house of God. And when he 
saw her, he was captivated by the love of the maiden, and 
he sent many people after her, that he might take her to 
wife. But she said to them all with a loud voice, " I am 
betrothed to the Christ" And the wicked man, by the 
mad impulse of Satan, assembled a great crowd, and 
watched her as she went to the house of God. And he 
wished to lead her away by force. And when they came 
to lead her forcibly away, those who were with the maiden 
cried with a loud voice. And when those who were in 
their house heard these things, they came out grasping 
swords. And those who had come to seize the hand- 
maiden of God by force, fled. 

But the holy one sealed herself with the sign of the Add. 12,1*2 
Christ, and she seized the insolent man and flung him on 
the ground. And she struck him on the face. And she 
tore his clothes and left him stupified, as her sister Thecla 


had done to the insolent Alexander. And she went forth- 
with to the house of God. 

But he went in a great rage to Cyprian the wizard, and 
promised him two talents of gold, if mayhap he might 
entrap the holy maiden with his sorcery, whilst the 
madman did not know that the power of the Christ is 

But when Cyprian the wizard had heard these things, 
he was grieved for the young man, and called up a certain 
cruel demon by his sorcery. And it answered and said to 
him, "Why hast thou called me?" And Cyprian said to 
it, "That I may please a certain maiden of the Galileans, 
if thou canst bring her to me." 

But the demon, ashamed, promised that it would bring 
her to him, whilst he was unable to conquer the truth. 
Cyprian answered and said to it, " Tell me, what are thy 
works, in which thou confidest, and I will send thee away." 
The accursed demon answered and said to him, "I am 
a rebel against God, and I obey Satan. And I made 
Eve to sin, and I have driven Adam out of Paradise. 
Add. 12442 And I have robbed him of bliss and of delight. And 
17ea I have taught Cain to kill his brother. And I have 

polluted the earth with blood. And I have increased 
adultery and sorcery. And I have made all lasciviousness 
and drunkenness. And I have incited silly laughter. And 
I have taught men to worship images. And I have 
counselled that the Christ should be .crucified. And I 
have shaken the whole city. And I have overturned 
walk And I have divided houses." 

And when the demon had said these things that had 
been done by it, it said to the wizard, "I have done all 
these things, and am I unable to conquer this?" Then 
Cyprian said to him, "Take this root and sprinkle it round 
about the house of the maiden. And I will take her mind 


away from her, and immediately she will obey thee." And 
when he had said these things to the demon, he went 
straight to the house of that maiden. But the blessed one 
stood up to pray the None in the night to God the lover of 
the penitent And when she became aware of the arrival 
of the demon, she prayed all the more to the Living God, 
because her mind was satiated with the love and the power 
of the Cross, and she signed herself with the sign of the 
Christ. And she called with a loud voice, saying, "O 
Lord, Almighty God! Father of our Lord Jesus the 
Christ, 'Thou who didst kill the man-slaying serpent, and Add. 12,142 
didst deliver those who were bound by Satan, O Lord f ' T6b 
God! who didst create man in Thine (own) image, and 
didst leave him in the paradise of delights to enjoy himself 
in Thy commandments, and he was thrown down by the 
deception of the serpent. And when he sinned thus Thou 
didst not forsake him, but by the power of Thy cross 
Thou didst cure his wounds, and didst make him whole, 
by means of the Christ, the Redeemer of the worlds, He 
by whom the created things were made, and the heavens 
were set in order, and the earth was stretched out; and 
the waters of the great deep were separated, that all 
natural things should confess to Thee, God! O Lord 
Jesus the Christ, redeem Thy handmaiden ; and let not 
the temptation of the enemy come near me. To Thee, 
Lord ! I have made a vow that I would be a virgin to 
Thine only Son, the Lord Jesus Christ. Redeem Thy 
handmaiden, because I have loved Thee and will love 
Thee, with 2 all my heart, and with 2 all my soul, and with 3 
all my strength. Thou, O Lord ! hast made the light of 
Thy love to shine on my soul. I beseech Thee, Lord ! 
leave me not to the hands of the Wicked one, that I may 
not transgress the promise that I have made to Thee. 
1 MS. "he." 3 Literally, "from." 


Chase away the thought of the rebel from my mind ; and 
keep me in Thy truth." And when she had said these 
things, she signed herself with the sign of the Christ, and 
n a*' 1 * 2 s ^ e P u ^ at * e demon ; and he went away ashamed ; and 
he stood before Cyprian ; and Cyprian said to him, " Where 
is the woman for whose sake thou hast been sent?" The 
demon answered and said to him, "Do not ask me, for 
I cannot tell thee. For I saw a certain sign and I have 
run away." But Cyprian laughed at him ; and he again 
called by his sorcery a stronger demon than the first one. 
And the cursed one boasted, and said to Cyprian, " I knew 
thy commandment and also the cowardice of him who was 
before me. Send me my father! and I will do thy 

And Cyprian said to him, "Take this root, and throw 
it outside the house of the maiden, and I will come and 
persuade her." And when the demon had come to the 
place which Cyprian had told him of, the handmaiden of 
God stood up to pray the Sext of the night, saying 
thus, "At midnight I have arisen, and I will praise Thee 
for Thy righteous judgments. God of all ! Lord of the 
heights and of the depths, who hast confounded Satan by 
Thy power, and hast put him down under the feet of Thy 
disciples. May the confirmation of Thy mercy remain 
with me, God! who didst receive the sacrifice of 
Abraham; and didst hear the prayer of Daniel ; and didst 
overthrow Bel, and didst slay the dragon; and didst 
shew the knowledge of Thy divinity to the Babylonians, 
God, who by means of Thine Only Son, the Lord Jesus 
Christ, didst dispose everything, and didst bring out every- 
thing that was concealed in darkness to the light; and 
didst bring to life even those who were dead. And now, 
Lord! in the abundance of Thy grace neglect me not,' 
Merciful One! but keep my soul and my body near to 


Thy holiness. Keep also the lamp of my virginity, that 
it may not go out ; that I may enter with the Bridegroom, 
the Christ, to the marriage feast; and may commit to 
Him my virginity in purity and holiness." 

And the demon went away from her ashamed, and S. P. 
appeared to Cyprian. And Cyprian answered and said * l7 ^ 
to it, " Where is the woman on whose account thou hast 
been sent?" It answered and said to him, "I cannot tell 
thee. For I saw a certain sign and I was afraid, and ran 

Then Cyprian called one whom he thought to be 
stronger than they, who was the father of the demons, 
and said to him, " Who is this slight thing by whom thy 
power has been conquered?" The demon answered and 
said to him, " I will bring her to thee, be ready at once." 
Cyprian answered and said to it, " What is the sign of thy 
victory?" The demon answered and said to him, " I will 
enfeeble her with much fever for six days, and at midnight 
I will make her ready for thee." 

And the demon went and appeared to the maiden in Add. 12,142 
the form of a maiden, her companion. And it went in and f " 78a 
sat down on the bed as if it had been a woman, and the 
evil one began to talk to the handmaiden of God in the 
manner of penitence. " I beseech thee, ^handmaiden of 
God, receive me, that I may be with thee. The Christ, 
thy Lord, hath sent me to thee. For I also am a virgin 
like thee, and shew me what is the struggle for virginity, 
or what recompense there is to those who keep it in 
purity. For I have seen thee that thou art greatly afflicted 
in the conflict" 

But the holy maiden, the servant of God, answered and 
said to her, " The tongue 1 of man cannot describe the 
reward of the virginity which is for the sake of the Christ ; 

1 Literally, "mouth." 

1 92 


Add. 12,142 
f. 78b 

Add. 12,142 

for it 1 is very great God has promised to those who love 
Him and preserve their virginity, what eye hath not seen, 
nor ear heard, nor hath it arisen in the heart of man. 
Who is able to comprehend the blessings which God has 
promised to those who love Him and preserve their 
virginity in purity? The struggle for virginity in this 
world is for a little while; but the blessings which are 
preserved for it in that world are neither transitory nor 

But the wicked demon began to speak with guile to 
the handmaid of God, saying to her, "Behold, I have heard 
that Eve was a virgin in Paradise, and was not blest. 
And when Adam had known her, and she had given birth 
to children, she received the knowledge of good and of 
evil. And by her means the world was peopled; and 
there was the succession of races and of tribes." 

But when the holy virgin heard these things, she rose up 
to pray because of the words of the crafty one. And the 
cursed fiend kept close to her, lest perchance there might 
be an opportunity for him to capture her. But the blessed 
handmaid knew the craftiness of Satan, and was much 
troubled because she had perceived that he was a deceiver ; 
and she hastened to prayer in the presence of God. 
And she sealed herself with the sign of the cross. And 
she puffed at that demon in the power of Jesus the 
Christ. And he fled ashamed from beside the hand- 
maiden of God, and went sadly to him who had sent him. 
But the holy one was strengthened by the power of the 
Christ, and rested from the dispute with the crafty one, 
and gave thanks to God who had helped her in the 
struggle. And straightway the fever left her. And she 
began to say, "Praise be to Thee, Christ! who 
strengthenest those who seek refuge with Thee and who 

1 Literally, "its reward," 


dost illuminate (with) Thy glorious beams those who are 
blind in the darkness of evil, Thou, O Lord! in the 
abundance of Thy mercy, deliver me not up to be van- 
quished by a stranger to righteousness. But help Thy 
handmaiden who hopes in Thee. For my flesh shudders 
for fear of Thee, and I have been afraid of Thy judgments. 
Give glory to Thy holy name, that those who hate me 
may see and be ashamed. For Thou, Lord ! hast 
helped me, and hast comforted me with Thy threefold 

And the demon had gone and had appeared to Cyprian 
the wizard. And it replied, saying to him, " I too, have 
again been vanquished by one weak woman." 

Cyprian answered and said, "Where is the power of 
thy victory? tell me/' The demon answered and said to 
him, "Ask me not, for I am unable to tell thee. For I saw 
a sign and I was shaken and fled. But if thou art willing 
that I should tell thee the truth, swear to me, and I will 
tell thee." 

Cyprian answered and said to him, " What have I that 
I can swear by to thee?" 

The demon said, "Swear to me by the great power 
that abides with me." 

Cyprian said to him, " No, by thy great power, I will 
not go away from thee." 

And the demon had become trustful and said to him, Add. 12,1*2 

f. 791) 

" I saw the sign of Him who was crucified. And I shook, 
and I was afraid, and I ran away." 

Cyprian said to him, "Is therefore He who was crucified 
greater than thou art? " The demon said, " Be patient and 
listen to me and I will tell thee truly. All that robs and 
deceives is allied to us, and becomes our comrade in that 
fearful place. For that torment is bitter. For they boil 
copper and place it on the limbs of both men and women. 

L. E. BB 


And thus by hard boiling they are 1 tortured before the 
tribunal of Him who was crucified. And the angels also 
afflict them with severity." 

Cyprian said, ft Therefore I also wish that I could be a 
friend to Him who was crucified ; that I also may not fall 
into His hard condemnation." 

The demon said, " And hast thou not sworn to me by 
my great power that thou wilt not deal falsely ? " 

Cyprian said, " By what have I sworn to thee and have 
dealt falsely?" 

Saith the demon, " By my great power." 
Cyprian said, "I reject thee and I scorn thy great 
power. For this night I have surely learned that I can 
take refuge in the prayer and the intercession of a virgin. 
And I supplicate by the power of the cross. And by it 
all thy lying power is humbled. For I also sign myself 
with the cross, and deny thee and all thy power." 

And when he had spoken thus, he sealed himself with 
the sign of our Redeemer, and said, " Glory be to Thee, 
Add. 12,142 Christ! invincible Power!" 
And immediately Satan fled. 

And Cyprian said, " Henceforth I believe in the Christ, 
and He redeems from all the power of the Evil one." 

But the demon went away ashamed. And Cyprian 
took the tablets of his sorcery and made the four men 
of his household carry them ; and thus he went to the 
house of God ; and he fell at the feet of the presbyter 
Euthymius 2 , and said to him : 

"0 blessed servant of God ! I implore thee that I may 
become 'a soldier of God and of our Lord Jesus the 
Christ ; and that I may be inscribed in the book of the 
believers those who serve Him." But the presbyter Eu- 
thymius .'imagined that perhaps he was seeking to deceive 

1 MS. "he is." 2 Syriac Palimpsest " Anthimus " foam. 


those who were in the church. So the holy one said to 
Cyprian, "Let it suffice thee that thou hast deceived so 
many people who are without Take heed to thyself, and 
do not come into the church of God with guile. For the 
power of the Christ is invincible." 

Cyprian answered and said, " Of a truth, my lord, I, 
too, know that it is invincible. For this night I sent 
demons against the holy virgin Justa. And she conquered 
them by her prayer and by her love to the Christ. But 
take the books of my sorcery, with which I have done all 
the evil, and burn them in the fire. And take pity on me, Add. 12,1*2 
and let me belong to the flock of the Christ" 

And when the holy Euthymius had heard these things 
from that wizard, he took his tablets and burnt them in 
the fire. And he blessed him and began to say to him, 
" Be constant in the house of God at the time of prayer." 

And Cyprian went to his house rejoicing; and he 
broke all the images that belonged to him. And all 
night he beat his hands on his face and on his breast, 
saying, " I have dared to withstand Thy power, Lord Jesus 
the Christ ! in all the wicked things that I did. And how 
may I bless Thee with the mouth wherewith I cursed the 
men who called upon Thy name." And he threw dust upon 
his head, and flung himself on his face upon the earth, 
and wept for seven days. And after the seven days, he 
got up early as great Saturday began, and he went to the 
house of God. And as he was going on the road, he said 
in his prayer : 

" Christ ! Helper of those who call upon Thee in 
truth ! If I am worthy to become Thy servant, shew me 
some place where I may enter Thy holy house, and may 
hear from the reading of Thy holy scriptures, O Lord ! Add. 12,1*2 
that Thou hast received me." 

And when he had entered the house of God he heard 



PS. XXXV. 22 

Is. lit. 13 

Is. xliv, 2 

Gal. iii. 13 
Ps. cvi. 2 

John iii. 16 

the chorister 1 say, "Thou hast seen (it) God! be not 
silent." And then, " Lord ! be not far from me/' And 
again he heard Isaiah who said, "Behold my servant 
shall deal prudently, and shall be exalted, so that many 
Ps. cxix. 148 shall be astonished at him," and again David saith, " Mine 
eyes have prevented the watches that I might meditate on 
Thy word." 

And again Isaiah has said, " Fear not, my servant 
Jacob, and Israel, whom I have chosen." And again the 
Apostle, who says, "The Christ hath redeemed us from 
the curse of the law." And again David hath said, " Who 
shall relate the wonderful works of the Lord ? " And again 
the Gospel, which hath said, "That whosoever believeth 
in me should not perish, but should have eternal life." 
And again they proclaimed, "That whosoever did not 
receive the sign should go out" And Cyprian sat at the 
threshold of the door, and one of the deacons said to him, 
* Rise and get thee out/ 1 But Cyprian answered and said 
unto him, " I am a bond-servant of the Christ ; and thou 
sayest to me, * Get thee out !' " 

And that deacon said to him, " Thou art not yet initi- 
ated, Cyprian," And Cyprian said to him, " As the Christ 
liveth, He who confounded the demons, and hath had 
mercy on me and on the maiden, I will not go out until 
I am initiated/' And Asterius the deacon went and 
informed the Bishop. And the Bishop called Cyprian. 
And he repeated to him the words of the holy scriptures. 
And he prayed, and thus he baptized him in the name of 
our Lord Jesus the Christ 

And after eight days he became a preacher of the 
hidden, mysteries. 

And when it was Pentecost, he was full of the grace 
of God, and healed demons and pains in the name of 

1 Or "the Psalmist." 

Add. 12,142 


Jesus the Christ. And until one year was completed, he 
became the assessor of the Bishop. And for sixteen years 
he held the sacred throne. And after these things the 
holy Euthymius summoned the Bishops who were round 
about, and said to them things that were worthy of the 
Church of God, and he, while still living, gave him the 
throne of the bishopric. And after a few days, the holy 
Euthymius went to rest in the Lord 1 , and confided to 
him the flock of the Christ For the holy Cyprian had 
put many things in order, and had made the holy Justa Add. 12,142 
a deaconess, and he enlightened many, and delivered them 
from all the heresies of destruction; and increased the 
Church of the Christ ; fulfilling the words of the prophets, 
fulfilling also the commandments of the Christ, whilst he 
laboured concerning the belief of the truth. He looked 
on the people who were scattered, and on the wolf whilst 
he was robbing. 

And the holy Cyprian taught many (people) of the 
city by letters. But the Lord of evil, crafty Satan, 
incited the sons of error to calumniate the holy one 
before Eutolmius, Count of the East, and they said to him, 
Cyprian is the teacher of the Christians ; and he makes 
void the glory of the gods by his many sorceries, with a 
certain virgin, and disturbs all the world by his letters, and 
makes women virgins." 

And the Count was filled with rage, and he commanded 
the judges to bind Cyprian and the maiden carefully, and 
to bring them to the city of Damascus and produce them 
before him. And when they had come before the Count 
he said to them, " Art thou the teacher of the Christians ? 
who of old hast turned away many from the praise of the 
gods, and hast deceived many by Him who was crucified ? 
exalting Him more than the gods?" 

1 Literally, "Christ." 


But the holy Cyprian said, "Why hast thou given 
thyself to the likeness of wickedness ? and to the madness 
of the evil one ? For I, as thou hast said, was captive to 
the enemy of justice, whilst I was the teacher of the 
pagans; and I slew many by every kind of sin. And 
when the Christ redeemed me, He helped me also by 
means of this maiden. A certain lawyer from the house of 
Claudius fell in love with her. And when he could not 
find (a way) to do evil to the handmaiden of God, desiring 
to capture her for his wife, he came to me and begged me 
to do the business of love for him. And I, confiding in 
the books of my sorcery, sent the demons against her. 
And she made them flee by the sign of the Christ. And 
thus (it was) until the third one. I even sent their chief, 
and that holy maiden overthrew them by the same sign of 
Ada. 12,142 the Christ And when I saw what had happened, I ad- 
jured that demon that he should tell me for what reason 
he could do nothing with the power of the maiden. And 
when the demon was burnt by the angel he told me all 
the truth. And he said to me again, I am the discoverer 
of all bad things. And I recollected myself and gave the 
tablets of my sorcery to the Bishop, my predecessor, whilst 
all the chief men of the city were present. And he burnt 
them in the fire. I would also persuade thee now to 
withdraw thyself from the madness of images, and come 
to the house of God, and thou shalt know the power of the 
Christ, which is invincible.' 7 

Then the Count was enraged against the blessed one. 
And he commanded that he should be hung up and 
combed. Also concerning the holy virgin, he commanded 
that she should be beaten 1 with rough thongs on her face ; 
the two being hung opposite to each other. And the 
maiden began to say, "Glory be to Thee, true Christ! 

1 Literally, "swallow." 


that Thou hast brought me who am unworthy near, to fulfil 
Thy will. And I am beaten 1 because of Thy name, which 
exalts its worshippers." And when the lictors were weary 
of beating the blessed one, she praised God all the more. Ada. 12,142 

But the Count commanded them to cease from her. 
And when Cyprian was being combed he did not feel 
the combs. 

The Count answered and said to him, "Sacrifice 
and escape from the tortures, and thou shalt not die 

The holy Cyprian replied and said to him, " Why dost 
thou exalt thyself against God and withdrawest from Him ? 
and dost not wish to draw near to the gospel of the 
Christ? For thou wilt not keep me back from the path of 
life. For I am running that I may attain to the heavenly- 
minded who inherit the kingdom, and may be made 
worthy, by means of those tortures which thou art bringing 
to me, of bliss that can never pass away/' 

The Count said, " And wilt thou inherit the kingdom 
of heaven because of these tortures ? I will bring greater 
ones than these to thee." 

And he commanded that they should conduct him to 
the prison-house, and the holy Justa with him. And he 
commanded that they should be guarded with diligence. 
And when they entered the prison-house, it shone by the 
grace of our Lord Jesus the Christ who was with them. 

And after a few days the Count commanded that they 
should bring them before his judgment seat And the 
Count answered and said to the blessed ones, "Do not be Add, 12,1*2 

f OA Q 

deceived by the faith and the sorcery of a mortal man, 
and lose your lives." 

But Cyprian answered and said to him, "This death 
has won eternal life for those who love Him." 

1 Literally, " I swallow." 


The senseless Count answered and said, "Heat the 
frying-pan and throw into it pitch, and wax, and bitumen, 
and fling the blessed ones into it 1 when it boils." And 
when they had thrown him in, he was not at all hurt. 

Then the Count commanded, and they brought the 
blessed Justa to the frying-pan. And when she drew 
near, the Evil one cast fear into her mind, and she began 
to be afraid. But the blessed Cyprian cried and said to 
her, "Come, handmaiden of God! for thou hast shown 
me the path of life ; and thou hast opened to me the door 
of heaven; and thou hast shown me the glory of the 
Christ. Thou hast been strengthened against the demons. 
Even their chief thou hast reckoned as nothing by the 
power of the cross. And how shouldst thou fear the fire." 

And the blessed one signed all her body, and ascended 
into the fiery frying-pan. And both of them rejoiced and 
exulted in the frying-pan as amongst refreshing dew. 
Add. 12,142 And Cyprian answered and said, " Glory be to God 

; n ^ highest, and peace on the earth; and goodwill to 
upright and faithful men." And he said again, " Because 
Satan is fallen from heaven, and is trampled beneath the 
feet of all those who believe in the King, the Christ, our 
Redeemer. For He hath bound the Evil one in darkness 
and all who obey him. I praise Thee, God ! for all in 
which Thou hast deemed us worthy to suffer contempt for 
Thy sake. I implore of Thee, merciful Lord, to receive 
our sacrifice for a sweet savour of Thy greatness.' 1 

And the Count heard, and laughed, and said, " I curse 
you and all the skill of your sorcery." 

And Athenus his colleague and profane friend said to 
the Count, "Let thy Highness command me, my lord, 
and I will approach the boiling pan in the name of the 
gods; and I will overcome the great power of the Christ" 
1 Literally, "tne frying-pan." 


And the Count said to him, "Approach." And when he 
approached the frying-pan, he lifted up his voice and said, 
"Great is the god Zeus! and the father of the gods 
Asclepius, who giveth health unto men." And when he 
came near to the boiling of the flame he fell, and all his Add. 12,142 
limbs were split like wax before the fire. But the grace of 
God preserved the holy Cyprian and the maiden without a 
spot ; because they praised God. 

And the Count was troubled and said, "What shall I 
do ? He who was my priest and friend has died miserably. 
What I shall do to these wicked people I do not know." 
Terentinus answered and said to him, "Have nothing 
to do with these people whom thou dost call wicked. 
And do not withstand the truth. For the power of the 
Christians is invincible. But 'send them to the Emperor, 
shewing him the matter of their crime." 

And the Count wrote the report about it thus : 

"To the great Emperor Caesar, who ruleth by land 
and by sea, Diocletian, greeting. Against the command- 
ment of thy Majesty have these men arisen. And I have 
apprehended them : Cyprian, who is the teacher of the 
Christians, and the virgin, who is named Justa. And 
from the reports, my lord, thou wilt learn into how many 
tortures and afflictions I have thrown them; and they 
would not be persuaded by me to obey thy laws, my lord, Add. 12,142 
and I have sent them to thine august Majesty.'* And when 
the Emperor had read these reports about the blessed 
ones, he was greatly astonished at their endurance, and his 
friends implored him and said to him, " Do not withstand 
the great power of God." 

And when the Emperor had heard [it] he said : " To 
Cyprian who is the teacher of the Christians with the 
virgin Justa, who have chosen the vain heresy of those 
who are called Christians; and have forsaken life, and 

L, E, cc 



Add. 12,142 
f. 36 a 

Add. 12,142 
f. 861) 

have chosen death. Therefore I command concerning 
them, that their heads be taken off with the sword. 

And while the blessed ones were being led off to death, 
to a certain place in which they were to reach their con- 
summation, they asked the lictors that a little time might 
be given them, in which they might pray. 

And the holy Mar Cyprian began to pray, saying, 
" Remember, Lord ! Thy Church, in every place, and all 
Thy faithful and true servants, and be Thou near to those 
who love Thy name." 

And he made the sign of the Christ over his whole 
body, and he placed the virgin Justa on his right hand : 
and he persuaded these lictors that she should be beheaded 
before him. And so the lictors did. 

And the holy Cyprian said, "Glory be to Thee, 
Christ, the Strengthener of Thy worshippers 1" 

And a certain great man was there whose name, was 
Theoctistus, a faithful man ; and he approached and 
greeted the holy martyr as he was being slain with the 
sword. And Balbus, the colleague of the Emperor, com- 
manded concerning him, that his head should be taken 
off with the sword. 

And when they had been crowned, and the blessed 
Theoctistus with them, the bodies of the blessed ones 
were thrown to the wild beasts. And they did not 
approach them for many days. 

But a sailor, a certain faithful man, when he heard 
about the end of the holy ones, because he was a kinsman 
of Theoctistus, took faithful men of his own with him, 
And he made them sit for six days and six nights, until 
they had snatched away the corpses of the blessed martyrs 
from the custodians, because the bones of the blessed 
ones were much more precious to them than gold, or silver, 
or costly pearls. And they carried them to the city of 


Rome with their memoirs. And they gave them to a 
certain woman whose name was Rufina, of the distinguished 
family of the Claudians. And this faithful woman Rufina 
carried the bones of the holy martyrs and laid them in 
an honourable place wrapped in pure linen, and with 
fragrant spices. And every one who approached the 
blessed ones received health and help from them. 

And these things were done in the consulate of 
Diocletian, in the city of Nicomedia, on the fifteenth of 
the month which is called Haziran, our Lord Jesus the 
Christ reigning in heaven and on earth. 

Here endeth the Martyrdom of Cyprian the wizard, 
and of Justa the virgin, and of the faithful Theoctistus. 


Again, verses of Mar Ephraim, from the Hymns of 

The assembly of the saints, in the type of Paradise. 

f. i Sob , My brethren, the life-giving 

cluster maimed the serpent, held captive by the curse. 
Eve's mouth was sealed in the silence of help, while again 
that mouth (reproached ?) her Maker. 

Blessed is he who is worthy to be in Paradise, when 
the glorious fruits of the trees abound. 

And again they ought to look at the fruits of the noble 

ones; flowers are conquered; 

they who see the pure and holy blossoms of their crowns ; 
joy of the creation and its Creator. (They) please Him 
who knoweth all the fruits of righteousness, more than the 
fruits and berries of the trees. The beauty of nature 
praises Him ; it praises the intellect Paradise (is) know- 
ledge; the flowers the deeds; the garden the freedom; 
the earth the mind. 

Blessed is He who exalted Adam. 

Blessed is he who is worthy to behold their robes. 

Blessed is he who is worthy to listen to their wisdom. 

Blessed is the ear that is drunk with their voices. 

Blessed is he who learns to be amongst the foremost 

HYMN. 205 

Woe be to him who does not even press that he may 
not be the last 

One of them cleft the air in his chariot The angels 
desire to meet him, for they saw of late a body in their 
dwelling. ^And as the earthly form in the chariot as- 
cended, thus our Lord descended clothed in a body by 
His grace; and being clothed in a cloud, He rode and 
ascended to reign above and beneath. Angels of fire 
and of wind wondered at the Elijah whom they saw, 
for in Him was hidden the gentle wisdom. On earth 
they wondered at ... its Creator, and they saw 
the Virgin and they rejoiced. 

Thou hast made the low things great and hast asto- 
nished the high things. 

They offered her in the midst of the earth her crown in 

Whosoever never utters the curse of vituperation, he 

has a desire more than . . . and he who is chaste 

some beauty shall be seen by him . . . 

his thought 

f. iSia 

Praise be to the Father and to tlte Son, and to the Holy 
Ghost, now and always, and for ever and ever. Amen. 

Here endeth this book of the Select Narratives : first, 
of the blessed Thecla; second, of Eugenia; third, of 
Pelagia; fourth, of Marinus; fifth, of Euphrosyne; sixth, 
of Onesima ; seventh, of Drusis ; eighth, of Barbara; ninth, 
of Mary ; tenth, of Irene; eleventh, of Euphemia; twelfth, 
of Sophia; thirteenth, of Theodosia; fourteenth, of Theo- 
dota; concerning the Faith; fifteenth, of Susan ; sixteenth, 
of Cyprian and Justa; seventeenth, verses about Paradise. 


I, the mean one, and the sinner, John the Stylite, 
of the monastery of Beth-Mari-Qanun (Conon?) in the 
town of Ma'arrath (Mesren 1 ) Kaukab of Antioch, by the 
[mercy] of God, I have written this book for the profit of 
myself, of my brethren, and of those who are neighbours 
to it; but because of [the love] of the Christ, I would 
persuade all those who [read] in it tcx-pray for me the more 
[earnestly] .... But whenever fhoi^meetest with 
this book . . . concerning the sinner thy prayer. 

This book was- finished in the year a thousand and 
ninefty*] of Alexander of Macedon, the son of Philip, in 
the month of Tammuz 3 : on the third day of the week, at 
the . . hour of the day, of the Baptism of our Lord 
Jesus the Christ May ... for the sinner who 
wrote this book ... the multitude on the Right 
Hand. Amen, and Amen, and Amen. 

1 From Professor Bensly's transcript of f. 165 b. 

2 Doubtful. A hole occurs here; and it may possibly have contained an 
ornamented flourish. 

3 /.*. July. 



Abila 66 

Abraham 166, 190 

Academy xiii 

Adam 188, 192, 204 

Adrianople xxiii 

Adrianus 72, 73, 74, 75 

Aedesius 185, 186, 187 

Africa 24 

Agape 168, 173, 176, 180, 182, 183 

Agapius 53, 56, 57, 58 

Agrippa xxv 

Alexander xi, xii, 122, 188, 206 

Alexandria i, 2, 18, 22, 23, 24, 46, 59 

Alexandrinus, Codex xiii 

Amos, 127 

Anglican Reformers xxvii 

Anicetus, 32 

Anthems, Convent 63 

Antioch ix, xi, xiv, xv, xvii, xxvii, 

xxx, 36, 70, 73, 185, 206 
Antiochus 169 
Antoninus 85, 86 
Apellianus 94, 97, 101, 113, 114, 145, 

146, 147, 149, 150, 153, 162, 163, 

165, 1 66 
Apollo xxv, 73 
Apollonia 73 
Aquilina 2 
Aquilinus 87 
Aquinus 77 
Arabian xxvi 
Arabic xiii, xxxi 

Aramaic 173 

Ares 149, 150, 153, 154, 155, 160 

Artemis 32, 33, 173, 177, 181 

Asclepius 201 

Assemani, Joseph xxi, xxiv, xxv 

Asterius 196 

Athenus 200 

Avita ) 

Avitus} ' '3> " 22 > 4, 34 

Aximus xxi, 77 

Babylon 92 

Babylonians 190 

Balbus 202 

Barbara xxi, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 

83, 84, 205 
Barbessus 157 
Baring- Gould ix, xxvi 
Basilia 25, 26, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32 
Bedjan xiv, xix, xx, xxiv, xxxi 
Bel 190 
Beltis 173 

Bensly, Prof. R. L. xxv 
Bentley xiii 
Berlin xxxi 

Beth-Man Kaddisha i 
Beth -Man Qanun 206 
Bithynia, 37 
British Museum xiv, xix, xx, xxi, 

xxii, xxiii, xxiv, xxvi, xxxi 
Bura 139, 140, 148 
Burkitt, F. C. xxv 



Caesar (Emperor) xii, 149, 201 

Qesar (soldier) 157 

Caesarea xxiv 

Cain 188 

Calderon xxvi, xxviii, xxx, xxxi 

Callinicus 133, 139, *48 

Camalisk-Gawerkoe xxi 

Carthage xxvii, 24, 25 

Castelus x 

Catherine, Convent of St xiii 

Chalcedon xxiii, 149 

Chrysostom xx 

Clarin xxviii 

Claudia i, 13, 21, 22, 24, 34, 35 

Claudians 203 

Claudius xxviii, 198 

Cledonia 185 

Commodus i 

Conon 206 

Constantine xxii 

Constantinople xix, xxiii 

Contemporary Review ix, xxvi 

Corinthians ix . 

Curica 118 

Cyprian, Bishop xxvii, xxviii, 25 

Cyprian, wizard xxvi, xxvii, xxviii, 
xxix, xxx, xxxi, 185, 188, 190, 
19', !93, *94, *95 *96, 197, 198, 
199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 205 

Dalisin 82 

Damascus 197 

Daniel, 92, 162, 190 

Daphne 185 

David 80, 121, 196 

Decius xxvii 

Demas x 

Diocletian 201, 203 

Dioscurus 77, 84 

Donatus xxvii 

JDrusina 71, 73> 74 75> 7$ 

IDrusis xx, xxi, 70, 71, 72, 205 

Drusina 150 

Dudina 65 

Ebionite ix 

Eden 147 

Edessa xviii, xx, xxii 

Edom 121, 140 

Egerton xxi 

Egypt xxi, i, 23, 3'j 54, 6 

Egyptians 2 

Elijah 205 

Elisha 123, 133 

Elpis 168, 173, '76, 177, ! 78, 179, 


Ephesus xviii, 145, 148 
Ephraim 204 

Esmeraldus 52, 53, 56, 57, 53, 59 
Euchaita 77 
Eudoxia xxviii 
Eugenia xiv, i, 3, 4, 5, 9 IO > II ? I2 J 

13, 14, i5 ? l6 ? J 7 ? 18, 19, 20, 21, 

22, 24, 25, 26, 28, 31, 32, 33> 34, 

35, 205 
Eugenius n 
Euphemia xxiii, 149, 150, 151, 152, 

153, 154, 155, 156, 158, 160, 

161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 

167, 205 
Euphorba 114 
Euphrosyne xix, xx, 46, 47, 49, 50, 

5i, 52, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59, 205 
Europe 149 
Euteles 127 

Euthymius 194, 195, 197 
Eutolmius 197 
Eutyches xxiii 
Eve 188, 192, 204 
Ezekiel 36 

Faust xxvii, xxx, xxxi 
Florio xxviii, xxix, xxx 

Galerius xxi 
Galileans 100, 188 



Galilee 74 

Gallienus 25, 31 

Gaza xiii 

Gerontius 80 

Gildemeister xviii 

Glasius 77 

Goethe xxvi, xxx 

Greek xiv, xxvi, xxviii, xxxi 

Greek Church xiii, xiv, xviii, xix, 

xx, xxi, xxii, xxiii, xxv, xxvii 
Greeks 2 

Gregory, St, of Nazianzen xxvii 
Gretchen xxxi 

Hadrian xxi, xxiv, 85, 169, 177, 184 

Hanania 8 

Hanna 37 

Harris, Dr J. Rendel xxv, xxviii 

Helenus 5, 6, 7, 3, 9, 10, 11 

Heliopolis xxi, 77 

Hermaeus xii 

Hermogenes x 

Homeric Centones xxviii 

Hyacinthus 3, 4, 5, 9, u, 13, 21, 25, 

28, 32 
Hypatus 2 

Iconians xi 
Iconium ix, xii 
Iraus 8 

Irene xxii, 94, 100, 105, io6 t 107, 108, 
109, no, in, 112, 114, 115, 116, 

Il8, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 
125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 

132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 
139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 146, 
147, 148, 205 

Isaiah 196 
I sauna xiii 
Israel 196 
Italy 170 

Jacob (patriarch) 196 
L. E. 

Jacob, Bishop xx 

Jacob (deacon) xv, xvi, xviii 

Jairus 130 

Jerome, St ix 

Jerusalem xviii, xxviii 

Jews 104 

John, Bishop of Edessa xxii 

John the Recluse, or the Stylite i,, 


Jonah 162 
Jordan 133 
Judith 37 
Julian, St xv, xvi 
Juliana xxvii, 81, 82, 83, 84 
Justa xxvi, xxvii, 185, 195, 197, 200,. 

201, 202, 203, 205 
Justina xxvii, xxviii, xxix, xxx, xxxi 

Karchedron xxvii 
Karthagena xxvii 
Kaukab 206 

Latin xiii, xiv, xviii, xix, xx, xxi, xxii,. 

xxiii, xxiv, xxv, xxvii, xxviii 
Latina 34 
Lazarus 130 
Lebanon xiii 
Lelio xxviii, xxix, xxx 
Libya xxvii 
Licinius xxv, 94, 102, 105, 107, 112,. 

113, 114,122, 130,134,145, 148 
Lisandro xxviii 
Livia xxviii, xxix 
Lycaonia xiii 
Lystra ix 

Macedon 206 

Magedo 94, 113, 122, 148 

Magi 30, 185 

Ma'lula xiii 

Marcianus 80, 81, 82, 84 

Margaret xxxi 

Margarita xvii, xt 



/Maria 37 

J Marina \ xix, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 

iMarinusJ 43,44,45,205 

lMary=Marinus xix, 36, 45 

Marlowe xxvi, xxx 

Martha 27 

Mary (the Virgin) 30, 116, 185 

Mary (of Bethany) xviii 

Mary, slave of Tertullius xxii, 85, 

86, 89, 90, 91, 93, 205 
Matrona xxviii 

Mauzalet, Tela of xxii, 139, 140, 148 
Maximian xxi 
Maximinus xxi, xxiv 
Maximus 25 

Melania 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22 
Mephistopheles xxxi 
Mesembria 139 
Mesopotamia xix 
Milan xiii 
Miller xiii 
Miriam 37 
Moscon xxviii 
Moses 37 
Mosul xxi 
Myra xii 

Nargium 106 

Natira 24 

Nazianzen xxvii 

Nicomedia xxi, 203 

Nisibis 143, 148 

Nitria 24 

Noah 144 

Nonnus xiv, xv, xvi, xvii, xviii 

Numerianus 133, 148 

Numidius 140 

Olives, Mount of xviii 

Onesima xx, 60, 61, 63, 64, 68, 69 


Onesimus 60 
Onesiphorus ix, x, xi, xii 

Origen xxi 
Orontes 72 

Palestine xxv 

Paphnutius 46, 47, 48, 49> 5> 54) 55> 

5<5, 57, 58, 59 
Paris xix, xx, xxiii 
Paul ix, x, xi, xii, I, 2, 36, 89, 101 
Payne-Smith xxii 

Pelagia xiv, xv, xvi, xvii, xviii, 36, 205 
Pelagius xviii 
Penelope 94, 100, 109 
Perinus 23 
Persian 148 
Peter 33, 36 

Philip xiv, i, 2, 22, 23, 34, 206 
Philippi xxv 
Philophron 150, 167 
Pistis 168, 173, 177 
Placimus 92, 93 
Pompeius 28, 31, 32 
Praylius 185, 186 

Priscus 149, 151, 152, 154, I55> 156 
Propontic xxiii 
Proteus 3, 4, 5 9, , I3> 21, 25, 28, 32 

Qanun, Beth-Man 206 

Roman xvi, xvii, xxii, xxiv, i, 25 

Romans 2, 9, 31, 174 

Rome i, 2, 24, 31, 168, 170, 183, 203 

Rosula xxvii 

Rufina xxviii, 203 

Sachau xxxi 

Sallustius 1 68 

Scete 50 

Scrivener xiii 

Sedrarum, Convent 63, 66 

Seleucia xiii 

Septinus 133 

Sergius I, 13, 21, 22, 24, 34 

Severianus 33 



Severon 122, 133, 134, 148 

Shabur 143, 144, 148 

Simon ix 

Sinai, Mount xiii, xxxi 

Sinaitic Palimpsest xxv, 93 

Sophia xxiii, xxiv, 168, 170, 173, 182, 

183, 184, 205 

Sophia, Church of St xxiii 
Sorbonne xxiii 
Sosthenes 156, 158 
Soter 25 
Sudrinus 153 
Sufu 70, 71 
Susan xxvi, 205 
Syllebria xxiii 
Synaxaristes xiv, xx, xxi, xxii, xxiii, 

xxiv, xxv, xxvi, xxvii, 139, 140 
Syria xiv, xxvii, 36, 70 
Syriac xx, xxi, xxii, xxv 
Syriac Palimpsest ix, xix, xxi, xxii, 

xxiii, xxiv, xxvi 
Syro-Antiochene xiii, xviii 

Tela of Mauzalat xxii, 139, 140, 143, 


Terentinus 201 
Tertullian ix 

Tertullius xxii, 85, 86, 87, 88 
Teutonic xxviii 

Thamyris x, xii 

Thecla ix, x, xi, xii, xiii, xiv, xxiii, 

i, 2, 3, 91, 187, 205 
Theocleia x, xii 
Theoctistus 202, 203 
Theodosia xxiv, 205 
Theodosius xxviii, 50, 56 
Theodota xxv, 205 
Theophanes xviii 
Tiber 33 

Timothy 36, 101, 102, 130 
Titus x 

Trajan xxi, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 149 
Tryphaena xi, xii 
Tyre xxiv 

Venice xix 
Victor 156, 158 

Walton xxvi 
Wright, W. Aldis xiii 
Wright, Dr William xiii, xiv, xx, 
xxi, xxiii 

Zacharia 24 

Zahn, Dr Theodore xxvii, xxx 

Zedetiia 113, 114, 133, 134, 148 

Zeno ix 

Zeus 73, 201 

The name "Jesus," which occurs frequently in these tales, is not included 
in the above list. 

"Kaddisha" and "Qanun" have the same initial letter in Syriac, and 
I regret that I am constrained to represent it by two different letters in 
English. I have retained "Kaddisha" because I wrote it thus in my 
Introduction to the text of the Four Gospels from the same manuscript ; 
and I prefer Qanun with a Q in order to distinguish it from "Kaniin," 
the name of a month. There is always a difficulty in transliterating the 
letter o into English.